Posted on by Kalkicode
Code Matrix

Two matrix subtraction

Matrix subtraction is another fundamental operation in linear algebra, closely related to matrix addition. It involves subtracting corresponding elements of two matrices to generate a new matrix. This operation is again based on the principle that the matrices being subtracted must have the same dimensions.

Problem Statement

Given two matrices A and B of size ROW x COL, the task is to perform matrix subtraction and obtain a new matrix C, where each element c[i][j] is the result of subtracting the corresponding elements of matrices A and B, i.e., c[i][j] = a[i][j] - b[i][j].

Description

Matrix subtraction involves subtracting the corresponding elements of two matrices to produce a new matrix. Let's explore matrix subtraction with an example.

Consider two matrices: Matrix A:

 1  2  3
 2 -5  2
-7  4  3

Matrix B:

3  1  4
1  3  3
2  2  2

Matrix subtraction involves subtracting the corresponding elements of the matrices:

(1-3)  (2-1)  (3-4)
(2-1)  (-5-3) (2-3)
(-7-2) (4-2)  (3-2)

This results in the following matrix:

-2  1 -1
 1 -8 -1
-9  2  1

Idea to Solve the Problem

The approach to solving the problem of matrix subtraction is quite similar to that of matrix addition:

  1. Define two matrices A and B with the same dimensions (ROW x COL).
  2. Iterate through each element of the matrices and calculate the difference of the corresponding elements.
  3. Store the differences in a new matrix C of the same dimensions.
  4. Display the matrices A, B, and C to showcase the inputs and the result of the subtraction.

Pseudocode

Here's the pseudocode to perform matrix subtraction:

function matrixSubtraction(matrix1, matrix2):
    initialize result matrix of the same dimensions as matrix1 and matrix2

    for i from 0 to ROW - 1:
        for j from 0 to COL - 1:
            result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j]

    display "Matrix A:"
    display matrix1
    display "Matrix B:"
    display matrix2
    display "Matrix A - Matrix B:"
    display result

Algorithm Explanation

  1. The function matrixSubtraction takes two matrices matrix1 and matrix2 as input and initializes a new matrix result of the same dimensions.
  2. It then iterates through each element using two nested loops, where i represents the row index and j represents the column index.
  3. For each element, it calculates the difference of the corresponding elements from matrix1 and matrix2 and stores it in the corresponding position of the result matrix.
  4. After calculating the entire result matrix, the function displays the original matrices matrix1 and matrix2, and then displays the result matrix result.

Code Solution

/*
  C Program 
+ Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
#include <stdio.h>

#define ROW 3
#define COL 3

//Display the element of given 2d matrix
void show_data(int matrix[][COL]) {
  
  printf("-----------------\n");
  
  for (int i = 0; i < ROW; ++i) {

    for (int j = 0; j < COL; ++j) {

      printf("%4d", matrix[i][j]);
    }

    printf("\n");
  }

  printf("\n");
}
void matrix_subtraction(int matrix1[][COL],int matrix2[][COL])
{

  //This matrix are store the result of subtraction 
  int result[ROW][COL];

  for (int i = 0; i < ROW; ++i) {

    for (int j = 0; j < COL; ++j) {

      //Subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
      // Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
      result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j];
      
    }
  }
  //Display Matrix Elements
  printf("  Matrix A\n");
  //print element of matrix1
  show_data(matrix1);


  printf("\n  Matrix B\n");
  //print element of matrix1
  show_data(matrix2);


  printf(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n");
  //Display resultant matrix
  show_data(result);

}
int main() {
  //Define matrix 1
  int matrix1[ROW][COL] = {
    {
      1, 2, 3
    },

    {
      2, -5, 2
    },
    {
      -7, 4, 3
    }
  };

   //Define matrix 2
  int matrix2[ROW][COL] = {
    {
      3, 1, 4
    },
    {
      1, 3, 3
    },
    {
      2, 2, 2
    }
  };

  matrix_subtraction(matrix1,matrix2);
  
  return 0;
}

Output

  Matrix A
-----------------
   1   2   3
   2  -5   2
  -7   4   3


  Matrix B
-----------------
   3   1   4
   1   3   3
   2   2   2

 (Matrix A) -
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
  -2   1  -1
   1  -8  -1
  -9   2   1
/*
  C++ Program
  Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
#include<iostream>
#define ROW 3
#define COL 3
using namespace std;

class MyMatrix {
  public:

  //Display the element of given 2d matrix
  void show_data(int matrix[ROW][COL]) {
    int row = ROW;
    int col = COL;
    cout << "---------\n";
    //Assume Both same N x M  size Matrix
    for (int i = 0; i < row; ++i) {

      for (int j = 0; j < col; ++j) {

        cout << " " << matrix[i][j];
      }
      cout << "\n";
    }
    cout << "\n";
  }
  void matrix_subtraction(int matrix1[ROW][COL], int matrix2[ROW][COL]) {
    //Assume both matrix are equal size
    //Assume  N x N Matrix size
    int row = ROW;
    int col = COL;
    int result[ROW][COL];
    for (int i = 0; i < row; ++i) {
      for (int j = 0; j < col; ++j) {
        //subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
        //Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
        result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j];
      }
    }
    cout << " Matrix A\n";
    //print element of matrix1
    this->show_data(matrix1);
    cout << "\n Matrix B\n";
    //print element of matrix1
    this->show_data(matrix2);
    cout << " (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n";
    //Display resultant matrix
    this->show_data(result);
  }
};
int main() {
  MyMatrix obj ;
  int matrix1[ROW][COL] = {
    {
      1,
      2,
      3
    },
    {
      2,
      -5,
      2
    },
    {
      -7,
      4,
      3
    }
  };
  int matrix2[ROW][COL] = {
    {
      3,
      1,
      4
    },
    {
      1,
      3,
      3
    },
    {
      2,
      2,
      2
    }
  };
  obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2);
  return 0;
}

Output

 Matrix A
---------
 1 2 3
 2 -5 2
 -7 4 3


 Matrix B
---------
 3 1 4
 1 3 3
 2 2 2

 (Matrix A) -
 (Matrix B)
---------
 -2 1 -1
 1 -8 -1
 -9 2 1
/*
  Java Program
  Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
public class MyMatrix {
 
  //Display the element of given 2d matrix
  public void show_data(int [][]matrix) {
    
    System.out.print("-----------------\n");
    
    //Assume Both same N x M  size Matrix
    int row = matrix.length;

    int col = matrix[0].length;

    for (int i = 0; i < row; ++i) {

      for (int j = 0; j < col; ++j) {

        System.out.print("  "+ matrix[i][j]);
      }

      System.out.print("\n");
    }

    System.out.print("\n");
  }
  public void matrix_subtraction(int [][]matrix1,int [][]matrix2)
  {
    //Assume both matrix are equal size
    //Assume  N x N Matrix size
    int row = matrix1.length;

    int col = matrix1[0].length;

    //This matrix are store the result of subtraction 
    int [][]result = new int[row][col];

    for (int i = 0; i < row; ++i) {

      for (int j = 0; j < col; ++j) {

        //subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
        //Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
        result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j];
        
      }
    }
    System.out.print("  Matrix A\n");
    //print element of matrix1
    show_data(matrix1);


    System.out.print("\n  Matrix B\n");
    //print element of matrix1
    show_data(matrix2);


    System.out.print(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n");
    //Display resultant matrix
    show_data(result);

  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {

    MyMatrix obj = new MyMatrix();
    //Define matrix 1
    int [][]matrix1 = {
      {
        1, 2, 3
      },

      {
        2, -5, 2
      },
      {
        -7, 4, 3
      }
    };

    //Define matrix 2
    int [][]matrix2 = {
      {
        3, 1, 4
      },
      {
        1, 3, 3
      },
      {
        2, 2, 2
      }
    };
    obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1,matrix2);

  }
}

Output

  Matrix A
-----------------
  1  2  3
  2  -5  2
  -7  4  3


  Matrix B
-----------------
  3  1  4
  1  3  3
  2  2  2

 (Matrix A) - 
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
  -2  1  -1
  1  -8  -1
  -9  2  1
/*
  C# Program
  Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
using System;
public class MyMatrix {

	//Display the element of given 2d matrix
	public void show_data(int[,] matrix) {

		Console.Write("-----------------\n");

		//Assume Both same N x M  size Matrix
		int row = matrix.GetLength(0);

		int col = matrix.GetLength(1);

		for (int i = 0; i < row; ++i) {

			for (int j = 0; j < col; ++j) {

				Console.Write("  " + matrix[i,j]);
			}

			Console.Write("\n");
		}

		Console.Write("\n");
	}
	public void matrix_subtraction(int[,] matrix1, int[,] matrix2) {
		//Assume both matrix are equal size
		//Assume  N x N Matrix size
		int row = matrix1.GetLength(0);

		int col = matrix1.GetLength(1);

		//This matrix are store the result of subtraction 
		int[,] result = new int[row,col];

		for (int i = 0; i < row; ++i) {

			for (int j = 0; j < col; ++j) {

				//subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
				//Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				result[i,j] = matrix1[i,j] - matrix2[i,j];

			}
		}
		Console.Write("  Matrix A\n");
		//print element of matrix1
		show_data(matrix1);


		Console.Write("\n  Matrix B\n");
		//print element of matrix1
		show_data(matrix2);


		Console.Write(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n");
		//Display resultant matrix
		show_data(result);

	}

	public static void Main(String[] args) {

		MyMatrix obj = new MyMatrix();
		//Define matrix 1
		int[,] matrix1 = {
			{
				1,
				2,
				3
			},

			{
				2,
				-5,
				2
			},
			{
				-7,
				4,
				3
			}
		};

		//Define matrix 2
		int[,] matrix2 = {
			{
				3,
				1,
				4
			},
			{
				1,
				3,
				3
			},
			{
				2,
				2,
				2
			}
		};
		obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2);

	}
}

Output

  Matrix A
-----------------
  1  2  3
  2  -5  2
  -7  4  3


  Matrix B
-----------------
  3  1  4
  1  3  3
  2  2  2

 (Matrix A) -
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
  -2  1  -1
  1  -8  -1
  -9  2  1
<?php
/*
  Php Program
  Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
class MyMatrix {
	//Display the element of given 2d matrix

	public 	function show_data($matrix) {
		echo("-----------------\n");
		//Assume Both same N x M  size Matrix
		$row = count($matrix);
		$col = count($matrix[0]);
		for ($i = 0; $i < $row; ++$i) {
			for ($j = 0; $j < $col; ++$j) {
				echo(" ". $matrix[$i][$j]);
			}
			echo("\n");
		}
		echo("\n");
	}
	public 	function matrix_subtraction($matrix1, $matrix2) {
		//Assume both matrix are equal size
		//Assume  N x N Matrix size
		$row = count($matrix1);
		$col = count($matrix1[0]);
		//This matrix are store the result of subtraction 
		$result = array_fill(0, $row,  array_fill(0, $col, 0));
		for ($i = 0; $i < $row; ++$i) {
			for ($j = 0; $j < $col; ++$j) {
				//subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
				//Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				$result[$i][$j] = $matrix1[$i][$j] - $matrix2[$i][$j];
			}
		}
		echo(" Matrix A\n");
		//print element of matrix1
		$this->show_data($matrix1);
		echo("\n Matrix B\n");
		//print element of matrix1
		$this->show_data($matrix2);
		echo(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n");
		//Display resultant matrix
		$this->show_data($result);
	}
};

function main() {
	$obj = new MyMatrix();
	//Define matrix 1
	$matrix1 = array(array(1, 2, 3), array(2, -5, 2), array(-7, 4, 3));
	//Define matrix 2
	$matrix2 = array(array(3, 1, 4), array(1, 3, 3), array(2, 2, 2));
	$obj->matrix_subtraction($matrix1, $matrix2);
}
main();

Output

 Matrix A
-----------------
 1 2 3
 2 -5 2
 -7 4 3


 Matrix B
-----------------
 3 1 4
 1 3 3
 2 2 2

 (Matrix A) -
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
 -2 1 -1
 1 -8 -1
 -9 2 1
/*
 Node Js Program
 Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
class MyMatrix {
	//Display the element of given 2d matrix
	show_data(matrix) {
		process.stdout.write("-----------------\n");
		//Assume Both same N x M  size Matrix
		var row = matrix.length;
		var col = matrix[0].length;
		for (var i = 0; i < row; ++i) {
			for (var j = 0; j < col; ++j) {
				process.stdout.write(" " + matrix[i][j]);
			}
			process.stdout.write("\n");
		}
		process.stdout.write("\n");
	}
	matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2) {
		//Assume both matrix are equal size
		//Assume  N x N Matrix size
		var row = matrix1.length;
		var col = matrix1[0].length;
		//This matrix are store the result of subtraction 
		var result = Array(row).fill(0).map(() => new Array(col).fill(0));;
		for (var i = 0; i < row; ++i) {
			for (var j = 0; j < col; ++j) {
				//subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
				//Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j];
			}
		}
		process.stdout.write(" Matrix A\n");
		//print element of matrix1
		this.show_data(matrix1);
		process.stdout.write("\n Matrix B\n");
		//print element of matrix1
		this.show_data(matrix2);
		process.stdout.write(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n");
		//Display resultant matrix
		this.show_data(result);
	}
}

function main(args) {
	var obj = new MyMatrix();
	//Define matrix 1
	var matrix1 = [
		[1, 2, 3],
		[2, -5, 2],
		[-7, 4, 3]
	];
	//Define matrix 2
	var matrix2 = [
		[3, 1, 4],
		[1, 3, 3],
		[2, 2, 2]
	];
	obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2);
}
main();

Output

 Matrix A
-----------------
 1 2 3
 2 -5 2
 -7 4 3


 Matrix B
-----------------
 3 1 4
 1 3 3
 2 2 2

 (Matrix A) -
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
 -2 1 -1
 1 -8 -1
 -9 2 1
# Python 3 Program
# Perform two matrix subtraction
class MyMatrix :
  # Display the element of given 2d matrix
  def show_data(self, matrix) :
    print("-----------------")
    row = len(matrix)
    col = len(matrix[0])
    i = 0
    while (i < row) :
      j = 0
      while (j < col) :
        print(" ", matrix[i][j],end="")
        j += 1
      
      print(end="\n")
      i += 1
    
    print("\n")
  
  def matrix_subtraction(self, matrix1, matrix2) :
    row = len(matrix1)
    col = len(matrix1[0])
    result = [
      [0] * col
      for _ in range(row)
    ]
    i = 0
    while (i < row) :
      j = 0
      while (j < col) :
        # Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
        # subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
        # Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
        result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j]
        j += 1
      
      i += 1
    
    print(" Matrix A")
    self.show_data(matrix1)
    print(" Matrix B")
    self.show_data(matrix2)
    print(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)")
    self.show_data(result)
  

def main() :
  obj = MyMatrix()
  matrix1 = [
    [1, 2, 3],
    [2, -5, 2],
    [-7, 4, 3]
  ]
  matrix2 = [
    [3, 1, 4],
    [1, 3, 3],
    [2, 2, 2]
  ]
  obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2)


if __name__ == "__main__":
  main()

Output

 Matrix A
-----------------
  1  2  3
  2  -5  2
  -7  4  3


 Matrix B
-----------------
  3  1  4
  1  3  3
  2  2  2


 (Matrix A) - 
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
  -2  1  -1
  1  -8  -1
  -9  2  1
# Ruby Program 
# Perform two matrix subtraction
class MyMatrix 
	# Display the element of given 2d matrix
	def show_data(matrix) 
		print("-----------------\n")
		row = matrix.length
		col = matrix[0].length
		i = 0
		while (i < row) 
			j = 0
			while (j < col) 
				print(" ", matrix[i][j])
				j += 1
			end
			print("\n")
			i += 1
		end
		print("\n")
	end
	def matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2) 
		row = matrix1.length
		col = matrix1[0].length
		result = Array.new(row){Array.new(col, 0)}
		i = 0
		while (i < row) 
			j = 0
			while (j < col) 
				# Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				# subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
				# Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j]
				j += 1
			end
			i += 1
		end
		print(" Matrix A\n")
		self.show_data(matrix1)
		print("\n Matrix B\n")
		self.show_data(matrix2)
		print(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n")
		self.show_data(result)
	end
end
def main() 
	obj = MyMatrix.new()
	matrix1 = [
		[1, 2, 3],
		[2, -5, 2],
		[-7, 4, 3]
	]
	matrix2 = [
		[3, 1, 4],
		[1, 3, 3],
		[2, 2, 2]
	]
	obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2)
end
main()

Output

 Matrix A
-----------------
 1 2 3
 2 -5 2
 -7 4 3


 Matrix B
-----------------
 3 1 4
 1 3 3
 2 2 2

 (Matrix A) - 
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
 -2 1 -1
 1 -8 -1
 -9 2 1

/*
 Scala Program
  Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
class MyMatrix {
	//Display the element of given 2d matrix
	def show_data(matrix: Array[Array[Int]]): Unit = {
		print("-----------------\n");
		var row: Int = matrix.length;
		var col: Int = matrix(0).length;
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < row) {
			var j: Int = 0;
			while (j < col) {
				print(" " + matrix(i)(j));
				j += 1;
			}
			print("\n");
			i += 1;
		}
		print("\n");
	}
	def matrix_subtraction(matrix1: Array[Array[Int]], matrix2: Array[Array[Int]]): Unit = {
		var row: Int = matrix1.length;
		var col: Int = matrix1(0).length;
		var result: Array[Array[Int]] = Array.fill[Int](row, col)(0);
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < row) {
			var j: Int = 0;
			while (j < col) {
				//Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				//subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
				//Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				result(i)(j) = matrix1(i)(j) - matrix2(i)(j);
				j += 1;
			}
			i += 1;
		}
		print(" Matrix A\n");
        this.show_data(matrix1);
        print("\n Matrix B\n");
        this.show_data(matrix2);
        print(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)\n");
        this.show_data(result);
	}
}
object Main {
	def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
		var obj: MyMatrix = new MyMatrix();
		var matrix1: Array[Array[Int]] = Array(
			Array(1, 2, 3),
			Array(2, -5, 2),
			Array(-7, 4, 3));
		var matrix2: Array[Array[Int]] = Array(
			Array(3, 1, 4),
			Array(1, 3, 3),
			Array(2, 2, 2));
  		obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2);
	}
}

Output

 Matrix A
-----------------
 1 2 3
 2 -5 2
 -7 4 3


 Matrix B
-----------------
 3 1 4
 1 3 3
 2 2 2

 (Matrix A) -
 (Matrix B)
-----------------
 -2 1 -1
 1 -8 -1
 -9 2 1
/*
  Swift 4 Program
  Perform two matrix subtraction
*/
class MyMatrix {
	//Display the element of given 2d matrix
	func show_data(_ matrix: [[Int]]) {
		print("-----------------\n");
		let row: Int = matrix.count;
		let col: Int = matrix[0].count;
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < row) {
			var j: Int = 0;
			while (j < col) {
				print(" ", matrix[i][j],terminator:"");
				j += 1;
			}
			print(terminator:"\n");
			i += 1;
		}
		print(terminator:"\n");
	}
	func matrix_subtraction(_ matrix1: [[Int]], _ matrix2: [[Int]]) {
		let row: Int = matrix1.count;
		let col: Int = matrix1[0].count;
		var result: [[Int]] = Array(repeating: Array(repeating: 0, count: col), count: row);
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < row) {
			var j: Int = 0;
			while (j < col) {
				//Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				//subtract matrix A [i] row and [j] columns into
				//Matrix B [i] row and [j] columns
				result[i][j] = matrix1[i][j] - matrix2[i][j];
				j += 1;
			}
			i += 1;
		}
		print(" Matrix A");
		self.show_data(matrix1);
		print("\n Matrix B");
		self.show_data(matrix2);
		print(" (Matrix A) - \n (Matrix B)");
		self.show_data(result);
	}
}
func main() {
	let obj: MyMatrix = MyMatrix();
	let matrix1: [
		[Int]
	] = [
		[1, 2, 3],
		[2, -5, 2],
		[-7, 4, 3]
	];
	let matrix2: [
		[Int]
	] = [
		[3, 1, 4],
		[1, 3, 3],
		[2, 2, 2]
	];
	obj.matrix_subtraction(matrix1, matrix2);
}
main();

Output

 Matrix A
-----------------

  1  2  3
  2  -5  2
  -7  4  3


 Matrix B
-----------------

  3  1  4
  1  3  3
  2  2  2

 (Matrix A) -
 (Matrix B)
-----------------

  -2  1  -1
  1  -8  -1
  -9  2  1

Time Complexity

The time complexity of this code is the same as that of the matrix addition code. The nested loops iterate through all the elements of the matrices, resulting in a time complexity of O(ROW * COL), where ROW and COL are the number of rows and columns in the matrices, respectively.

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