Posted on by Kalkicode
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# Ternary Search Tree Insertion

A Ternary Search Tree (TST) is a type of data structure that combines the characteristics of both binary search trees and tries. It is used to store a dynamic set of strings in a way that allows for efficient insertion, deletion, and search operations. In a TST, each node has three branches: left, equal, and right, representing characters that are less than, equal to, or greater than the node's own character. This structure is particularly useful for tasks like autocomplete suggestions, spell checking, and searching for words with common prefixes.

## Problem Statement

The problem is to implement insertion and search operations for a Ternary Search Tree. Given a set of words, we need to build a TST and perform searches to determine if specific words are present in the tree.

## Example Scenario

Let's consider a set of words: "feel", "fee", "run", "milk", "co", and "code". We will construct a Ternary Search Tree using these words and demonstrate how insertion and search operations work.

## Idea to Solve

To solve this problem, we'll follow these steps:

1. Create structures for TST nodes and the TST itself.
2. Implement functions to create new TST nodes and a new TST.
3. Define insertion logic to add words to the TST.
4. Develop search logic to check if a word is present in the TST.
5. Implement a function to traverse and print all words stored in the TST.
6. Demonstrate the insertion, search, and traversal operations using test cases.

## Pseudocode

struct TreeNode:
char data
int terminate
TreeNode left
TreeNode equal
TreeNode right

struct TernarySearchTree:
TreeNode root

TernarySearchTree newTree():
tree = allocate memory for TernarySearchTree
tree.root = NULL
return tree

TreeNode newTreeNode(data):
node = allocate memory for TreeNode
node.data = data
node.left = NULL
node.equal = NULL
node.right = NULL
node.terminate = 0
return node

TreeNode insert(root, word):
if root is NULL:
node = newTreeNode(word[0])
root = node

if word[0] < root.data:
root.left = insert(root.left, word)
else if word[0] > root.data:
root.right = insert(root.right, word)
else:
if word[1] exists:
root.equal = insert(root.equal, word[1:])
else:
root.terminate = 1
return root

void traverseTST(root, output, depth):
if root is not NULL:
traverseTST(root.left, output, depth)
output[depth] = root.data
if root.terminate is true:
output[depth + 1] = '\0'
print output
traverseTST(root.equal, output, depth + 1)
traverseTST(root.right, output, depth)

int searchElement(root, word):
if root is NULL:
return 0
else if word[0] < root.data:
return searchElement(root.left, word)
else if word[0] > root.data:
return searchElement(root.right, word)
else:
if word[1] exists:
return searchElement(root.equal, word[1:])
else:
return root.terminate

void searchTreeNode(root, word):
print "Given:", word
if searchElement(root, word) is true:
print "Found"
else:

int main():
tree = newTree()
insert(tree.root, "feel")
insert(tree.root, "fee")
insert(tree.root, "run")
insert(tree.root, "milk")
insert(tree.root, "co")
insert(tree.root, "code")
print "Ternary search tree:"
traverseTST(tree.root, output, depth)
searchTreeNode(tree.root, "milk")
searchTreeNode(tree.root, "fee")
searchTreeNode(tree.root, "milks")

## Code Solution

// C program for
// Ternary Search Tree Insertion
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

// Ternary search tree
struct TreeNode
{
char data;
int terminate;
struct TreeNode *left;
struct TreeNode *equal;
struct TreeNode *right;
};

struct TernarySearchTree
{
struct TreeNode *root;
};
// Create and return new tree
struct TernarySearchTree *newTree()
{
// Create a dynamic node
struct TernarySearchTree *tree = (struct TernarySearchTree *) malloc(sizeof(struct TernarySearchTree));
if (tree != NULL)
{
tree->root = NULL;
}
else
{
printf("Memory Overflow to Create tree Tree\n");
exit(0);
}
// Return new tree
return tree;
}
// Create new node of tree
struct TreeNode *newTreeNode(char data)
{
struct TreeNode *node = (struct TreeNode *) malloc(sizeof(struct TreeNode));
if (node == NULL)
{
printf("Memory Overflow to create new tree node\n");
// Memory overflow
exit(0);
}
node->left = NULL;
node->equal = NULL;
node->right = NULL;
node->data = data;
node->terminate = 0;
return node;
}
// Print the all words using recursion
void printWords(struct TreeNode *root, char *output, int depth)
{
if (root != NULL)
{
// First traverse the left subtree
printWords(root->left, output, depth);

// Store the character of this node
output[depth] = root->data;

if (root->terminate)
{
// Include termination character
output[depth + 1] = '\0';

// Display word
printf(" %s\n", output);
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
printWords(root->equal, output, depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
printWords(root->right, output, depth);
}
}
// Calculate height of tree
int treeHeight(struct TreeNode *node)
{
if (node != NULL)
{
// Find height of subtree using recursion
int a = treeHeight(node->left);
int b = treeHeight(node->right);
// Returns the height of largest subtree
if (a > b)
{
return a + 1;
}
else
{
return b + 1;
}
}
else
{
return 0;
}
}
// Handles the request of printing tree elements
void traverseTST(struct TreeNode *root)
{
if (root == NULL)
{
return;
}
// Find height of tree
int h = treeHeight(root) + 1;

// Use to collect word character
char output[h];
// Print all words
printWords(root, output, 0);
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
struct TreeNode *insert(struct TreeNode *root, char *word)
{
struct TreeNode *node = root;

if (root == NULL)
{
node = newTreeNode( *word);
}
if (( *word) < node->data)
{
node->left = insert(node->left, word);
}
else if (( *word) > node->data)
{
node->right = insert(node->right, word);
}
else
{
if ( *(word + 1))
{
node->equal = insert(node->equal, word + 1);
}
else
{
node->terminate = 1;
}
}
return node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
void addNode(struct TernarySearchTree *tree, char *word)
{
tree->root = insert(tree->root, word);
}
int searchElement(struct TreeNode *root, char *word)
{
if (root == NULL)
{
return 0;
}
else if ( *word < root->data)
{
return searchElement(root->left, word);
}
else if ( *word > root->data)
{
return searchElement(root->right, word);
}
else
{
if ( *(word + 1))
{
// When word not empty
return searchElement(root->equal, word + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return root->terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
void searchTreeNode(struct TreeNode *root, char *word)
{
printf("\n Given : [%s] \n", word);
if (searchElement(root, word) == 1)
{
printf(" Found\n");
}
else
{
}
}
int main()
{
struct TernarySearchTree *tree = newTree();
printf(" Ternary search tree\n");
traverseTST(tree->root);
// Test Cases
searchTreeNode(tree->root, "milk");
searchTreeNode(tree->root, "fee");
searchTreeNode(tree->root, "milks");
return 0;
}

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
/*
Java Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/
// Ternary search tree
class TreeNode
{
public char data;
public boolean terminate;
public TreeNode left;
public TreeNode equal;
public TreeNode right;
public TreeNode(char data)
{
this.data = data;
this.left = null;
this.right = null;
this.equal = null;
this.terminate = false;
}
}
public class TernarySearchTree
{
public TreeNode root;
public TernarySearchTree()
{
this.root = null;
}
// Print the all words using recursion
public void printWords(TreeNode node, String output, int depth)
{
if (node != null)
{
// Visit left subtree
printWords(node.left, output, depth);
if (node.terminate == true)
{
// Display word
System.out.print(" " + (output + node.data) + "\n");
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
printWords(node.equal, output + node.data, depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
printWords(node.right, output, depth);
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
public TreeNode insert(TreeNode rootNode, String word, int position)
{
TreeNode node = rootNode;
if (rootNode == null)
{
node = new TreeNode(word.charAt(position));
}
if (word.charAt(position) < node.data)
{
node.left = insert(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.charAt(position) > node.data)
{
node.right = insert(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if ((position + 1) < word.length())
{
node.equal = insert(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
node.terminate = true;
}
}
return node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
{
if (word.length() == 0)
{
return;
}
this.root = insert(this.root, word, 0);
}
public boolean searchElement(TreeNode node, String word, int position)
{
if (node == null)
{
return false;
}
else if (word.charAt(position) < node.data)
{
return searchElement(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.charAt(position) > node.data)
{
return searchElement(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if (position + 1 < word.length())
{
// When word not empty
return searchElement(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
public void searchTreeNode(String word)
{
System.out.print("\n Given : [" + word + "] \n");
if (word.length() > 0 && this.searchElement(root, word, 0) == true)
{
System.out.print(" Found\n");
}
else
{
}
}
public static void main(String[] args)
{
TernarySearchTree tree = new TernarySearchTree();
System.out.print(" Ternary search tree\n");
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0);
// Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk");
tree.searchTreeNode("fee");
tree.searchTreeNode("milks");
}
}

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;

/*
C++ Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/

// Ternary search tree
class TreeNode
{
public:
char data;
bool terminate;
TreeNode *left;
TreeNode *equal;
TreeNode *right;
TreeNode(char data)
{
this->data = data;
this->left = NULL;
this->right = NULL;
this->equal = NULL;
this->terminate = false;
}
};
class TernarySearchTree
{
public:
TreeNode *root;
TernarySearchTree()
{
this->root = NULL;
}
// Print the all words using recursion
void printWords(TreeNode *node, string output, int depth)
{
if (node != NULL)
{
// Visit left subtree
this->printWords(node->left, output, depth);
if (node->terminate == true)
{
// Display word
cout << " " << (output + node->data) << "\n";
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
this->printWords(node->equal, output  + node->data, depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
this->printWords(node->right, output, depth);
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
TreeNode *insert(TreeNode *rootNode, string word, int position)
{
TreeNode *node = rootNode;
if (rootNode == NULL)
{
node = new TreeNode(word[position]);
}
if (word[position] < node->data)
{
node->left = this->insert(node->left, word, position);
}
else if (word[position] > node->data)
{
node->right = this->insert(node->right, word, position);
}
else
{
if ((position + 1) < word.length())
{
node->equal = this->insert(node->equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
node->terminate = true;
}
}
return node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
{
if (word.length() == 0)
{
return;
}
this->root = this->insert(this->root, word, 0);
}
bool searchElement(TreeNode *node, string word, int position)
{
if (node == NULL)
{
return false;
}
else if (word[position] < node->data)
{
return this->searchElement(node->left, word, position);
}
else if (word[position] > node->data)
{
return this->searchElement(node->right, word, position);
}
else
{
if (position + 1 < word.length())
{
// When word not empty
return this->searchElement(node->equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return node->terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
void searchTreeNode(string word)
{
cout << "\n Given : [" << word << "] \n";
if (word.length() > 0
&& this->searchElement(this->root, word, 0) == true)
{
cout << " Found\n";
}
else
{
}
}
};
int main()
{
TernarySearchTree *tree = new TernarySearchTree();
cout << " Ternary search tree\n";
tree->printWords(tree->root, "", 0);
// Test Cases
tree->searchTreeNode("milk");
tree->searchTreeNode("fee");
tree->searchTreeNode("milks");
return 0;
}

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
// Include namespace system
using System;
/*
Csharp Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/
// Ternary search tree
public class TreeNode
{
public char data;
public Boolean terminate;
public TreeNode left;
public TreeNode equal;
public TreeNode right;
public TreeNode(char data)
{
this.data = data;
this.left = null;
this.right = null;
this.equal = null;
this.terminate = false;
}
}
public class TernarySearchTree
{
public TreeNode root;
public TernarySearchTree()
{
this.root = null;
}
// Print the all words using recursion
public void printWords(TreeNode node, String output, int depth)
{
if (node != null)
{
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.left, output, depth);
if (node.terminate == true)
{
// Display word
Console.Write(" " + (output + node.data) + "\n");
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
this.printWords(node.equal, output + node.data, depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.right, output, depth);
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
public TreeNode insert(TreeNode rootNode, String word, int position)
{
TreeNode node = rootNode;
if (rootNode == null)
{
node = new TreeNode(word[position]);
}
if (word[position] < node.data)
{
node.left = this.insert(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word[position] > node.data)
{
node.right = this.insert(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if ((position + 1) < word.Length)
{
node.equal = this.insert(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
node.terminate = true;
}
}
return node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
{
if (word.Length == 0)
{
return;
}
this.root = this.insert(this.root, word, 0);
}
public Boolean searchElement(TreeNode node, String word, int position)
{
if (node == null)
{
return false;
}
else if (word[position] < node.data)
{
return this.searchElement(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word[position] > node.data)
{
return this.searchElement(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if (position + 1 < word.Length)
{
// When word not empty
return this.searchElement(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
public void searchTreeNode(String word)
{
Console.Write("\n Given : [" + word + "] \n");
if (word.Length > 0 && this.searchElement(this.root, word, 0) == true)
{
Console.Write(" Found\n");
}
else
{
}
}
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
TernarySearchTree tree = new TernarySearchTree();
Console.Write(" Ternary search tree\n");
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0);
// Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk");
tree.searchTreeNode("fee");
tree.searchTreeNode("milks");
}
}

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
<?php
/*
Php Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/
// Ternary search tree
class TreeNode
{
public \$data;
public \$terminate;
public \$left;
public \$equal;
public \$right;
public	function __construct(\$data)
{
\$this->data = \$data;
\$this->left = NULL;
\$this->right = NULL;
\$this->equal = NULL;
\$this->terminate = false;
}
}
class TernarySearchTree
{
public \$root;
public	function __construct()
{
\$this->root = NULL;
}
// Print the all words using recursion
public	function printWords(\$node, \$output, \$depth)
{
if (\$node != NULL)
{
// Visit left subtree
\$this->printWords(\$node->left, \$output, \$depth);
if (\$node->terminate == true)
{
// Display word
echo(" ".(\$output.\$node->data).
"\n");
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
\$this->printWords(\$node->equal,
\$output.strval(\$node->data),
\$depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
\$this->printWords(\$node->right,
\$output,
\$depth);
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
public	function insert(\$rootNode, \$word, \$position)
{
\$node = \$rootNode;
if (\$rootNode == NULL)
{
\$node = new TreeNode(\$word[\$position]);
}
if (\$word[\$position] < \$node->data)
{
\$node->left = \$this->insert(\$node->left, \$word, \$position);
}
else if (\$word[\$position] > \$node->data)
{
\$node->right = \$this->insert(\$node->right, \$word, \$position);
}
else
{
if ((\$position + 1) < strlen(\$word))
{
\$node->equal = \$this->insert(
\$node->equal,
\$word,
\$position + 1);
}
else
{
\$node->terminate = true;
}
}
return \$node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
{
if (strlen(\$word) == 0)
{
return;
}
\$this->root = \$this->insert(\$this->root, \$word, 0);
}
public	function searchElement(\$node, \$word, \$position)
{
if (\$node == NULL)
{
return false;
}
else if (\$word[\$position] < \$node->data)
{
return \$this->searchElement(
\$node->left,
\$word,
\$position);
}
else if (\$word[\$position] > \$node->data)
{
return \$this->searchElement(
\$node->right,
\$word,
\$position);
}
else
{
if (\$position + 1 < strlen(\$word))
{
// When word not empty
return \$this->searchElement(
\$node->equal,
\$word,
\$position + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return \$node->terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
public	function searchTreeNode(\$word)
{
echo("\n Given : [".\$word.
"] \n");
if (strlen(\$word) > 0 &&
\$this->searchElement(\$this->root, \$word, 0) == true)
{
echo(" Found\n");
}
else
{
}
}
}

function main()
{
\$tree = new TernarySearchTree();
echo(" Ternary search tree\n");
\$tree->printWords(\$tree->root, "", 0);
// Test Cases
\$tree->searchTreeNode("milk");
\$tree->searchTreeNode("fee");
\$tree->searchTreeNode("milks");
}
main();

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
/*
Node JS Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/
// Ternary search tree
class TreeNode
{
constructor(data)
{
this.data = data;
this.left = null;
this.right = null;
this.equal = null;
this.terminate = false;
}
}
class TernarySearchTree
{
constructor()
{
this.root = null;
}
// Print the all words using recursion
printWords(node, output, depth)
{
if (node != null)
{
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.left, output, depth);
if (node.terminate == true)
{
// Display word
process.stdout.write(" " + (output + node.data) + "\n");
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
this.printWords(node.equal, output + node.data, depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.right, output, depth);
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
insert(rootNode, word, position)
{
var node = rootNode;
if (rootNode == null)
{
node = new TreeNode(word.charAt(position));
}
if (word.charAt(position) < node.data)
{
node.left = this.insert(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.charAt(position) > node.data)
{
node.right = this.insert(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if ((position + 1) < word.length)
{
node.equal = this.insert(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
node.terminate = true;
}
}
return node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
{
if (word.length == 0)
{
return;
}
this.root = this.insert(this.root, word, 0);
}
searchElement(node, word, position)
{
if (node == null)
{
return false;
}
else if (word.charAt(position) < node.data)
{
return this.searchElement(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.charAt(position) > node.data)
{
return this.searchElement(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if (position + 1 < word.length)
{
// When word not empty
return this.searchElement(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
searchTreeNode(word)
{
process.stdout.write("\n Given : [" + word + "] \n");
if (word.length > 0 && this.searchElement(this.root, word, 0) == true)
{
process.stdout.write(" Found\n");
}
else
{
}
}
}

function main()
{
var tree = new TernarySearchTree();
process.stdout.write(" Ternary search tree\n");
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0);
// Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk");
tree.searchTreeNode("fee");
tree.searchTreeNode("milks");
}
main();

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
#    Python 3 Program
#    Ternary Search Tree Insertion

#  Ternary search tree
class TreeNode :
def __init__(self, data) :
self.data = data
self.left = None
self.right = None
self.equal = None
self.terminate = False

class TernarySearchTree :
def __init__(self) :
self.root = None

#  Print the all words using recursion
def printWords(self, node, output, depth) :
if (node != None) :
#  Visit left subtree
self.printWords(node.left, output, depth)
if (node.terminate == True) :
#  Display word
print(" ", (output + node.data) )

#  Visit equal (middle) subtree
self.printWords(node.equal, output + str(node.data), depth + 1)
#  Visit left subtree
self.printWords(node.right, output, depth)

#  Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
def insert(self, rootNode, word, position) :
node = rootNode
if (rootNode == None) :
node = TreeNode(word[position])

if (word[position] < node.data) :
node.left = self.insert(node.left, word, position)
elif (word[position] > node.data) :
node.right = self.insert(node.right, word, position)
else :
if ((position + 1) < len(word)) :
node.equal = self.insert(node.equal, word, position + 1)
else :
node.terminate = True

return node

#  Handles the request of add new node
if (len(word) == 0) :
return

self.root = self.insert(self.root, word, 0)

def searchElement(self, node, word, position) :
if (node == None) :
return False
elif (word[position] < node.data) :
return self.searchElement(node.left, word, position)
elif (word[position] > node.data) :
return self.searchElement(node.right, word, position)
else :
if (position + 1 < len(word)) :
#  When word not empty
return self.searchElement(node.equal, word, position + 1)
else :
#  returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate

#  Handles the request of search word
def searchTreeNode(self, word) :
print("\n Given : [", word ,"] ")
if (len(word) > 0 and self.searchElement(self.root, word, 0) == True) :
print(" Found")
else :

def main() :
tree = TernarySearchTree()
print(" Ternary search tree")
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0)
#  Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk")
tree.searchTreeNode("fee")
tree.searchTreeNode("milks")

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [ milk ]
Found

Given : [ fee ]
Found

Given : [ milks ]
#    Ruby Program
#    Ternary Search Tree Insertion

#  Ternary search tree
class TreeNode
# Define the accessor and reader of class TreeNode
attr_reader :data, :terminate, :left, :equal, :right
attr_accessor :data, :terminate, :left, :equal, :right
def initialize(data)
self.data = data
self.left = nil
self.right = nil
self.equal = nil
self.terminate = false
end

end

class TernarySearchTree
# Define the accessor and reader of class TernarySearchTree
attr_accessor :root
def initialize()
self.root = nil
end

#  Print the all words using recursion
def printWords(node, output, depth)
if (node != nil)
#  Visit left subtree
self.printWords(node.left, output, depth)
if (node.terminate == true)
#  Display word
print(" ", (output + node.data) ,"\n")
end

#  Visit equal (middle) subtree
self.printWords(node.equal, output + node.data.to_s, depth + 1)
#  Visit left subtree
self.printWords(node.right, output, depth)
end

end

#  Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
def insert(rootNode, word, position)
node = rootNode
if (rootNode == nil)
node = TreeNode.new(word[position])
end

if (word[position] < node.data)
node.left = self.insert(node.left, word, position)
elsif (word[position] > node.data)
node.right = self.insert(node.right, word, position)
else

if ((position + 1) < word.length)
node.equal = self.insert(node.equal, word, position + 1)
else

node.terminate = true
end

end

return node
end

#  Handles the request of add new node
if (word.length == 0)
return
end

self.root = self.insert(self.root, word, 0)
end

def searchElement(node, word, position)
if (node == nil)
return false
elsif (word[position] < node.data)
return self.searchElement(node.left, word, position)
elsif (word[position] > node.data)
return self.searchElement(node.right, word, position)
else

if (position + 1 < word.length)
#  When word not empty
return self.searchElement(node.equal, word, position + 1)
else

#  returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate
end

end

end

#  Handles the request of search word
def searchTreeNode(word)
print("\n Given : [", word ,"] \n")
if (word.length > 0 && self.searchElement(self.root, word, 0) == true)
print(" Found\n")
else

end

end

end

def main()
tree = TernarySearchTree.new()
print(" Ternary search tree\n")
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0)
#  Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk")
tree.searchTreeNode("fee")
tree.searchTreeNode("milks")
end

main()

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
import scala.collection.mutable._;
/*
Scala Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/
// Ternary search tree
class TreeNode(var data: Char,
var terminate: Boolean,
var left: TreeNode,
var equal: TreeNode,
var right: TreeNode)
{
def this(data: Char)
{
this(data,false,null,null,null);
}
}
class TernarySearchTree(var root: TreeNode)
{
def this()
{
this(null);
}
// Print the all words using recursion
def printWords(node: TreeNode, output: String, depth: Int): Unit = {
if (node != null)
{
// Visit left subtree
printWords(node.left, output, depth);
if (node.terminate == true)
{
// Display word
print(" " + (output + node.data) + "\n");
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
printWords(node.equal,
output + node.data.toString(),
depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
printWords(node.right,
output,
depth);
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
def insert(rootNode: TreeNode, word: String, position: Int): TreeNode = {
var node: TreeNode = rootNode;
if (rootNode == null)
{
node = new TreeNode(word.charAt(position));
}
if (word.charAt(position) < node.data)
{
node.left = insert(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.charAt(position) > node.data)
{
node.right = insert(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if ((position + 1) < word.length())
{
node.equal = insert(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
node.terminate = true;
}
}
return node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
def addNode(word: String): Unit = {
if (word.length() == 0)
{
return;
}
this.root = insert(this.root, word, 0);
}
def searchElement(node: TreeNode, word: String, position: Int): Boolean = {
if (node == null)
{
return false;
}
else if (word.charAt(position) < node.data)
{
return searchElement(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.charAt(position) > node.data)
{
return searchElement(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if (position + 1 < word.length())
{
// When word not empty
return searchElement(
node.equal,
word,
position + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
def searchTreeNode(word: String): Unit = {
print("\n Given : [" + word + "] \n");
if (word.length() > 0 &&
this.searchElement(root, word, 0) == true)
{
print(" Found\n");
}
else
{
}
}
}
object Main
{
def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
var tree: TernarySearchTree = new TernarySearchTree();
print(" Ternary search tree\n");
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0);
// Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk");
tree.searchTreeNode("fee");
tree.searchTreeNode("milks");
}
}

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
/*
Kotlin Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/
// Ternary search tree
class TreeNode
{
var data: Char;
var terminate: Boolean;
var left: TreeNode ? ;
var equal: TreeNode ? ;
var right: TreeNode ? ;
constructor(data: Char)
{
this.data = data;
this.left = null;
this.right = null;
this.equal = null;
this.terminate = false;
}
}
class TernarySearchTree
{
var root: TreeNode ? ;
constructor()
{
this.root = null;
}
// Print the all words using recursion
fun printWords(node: TreeNode ? , output : String, depth: Int): Unit
{
if (node != null)
{
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.left, output, depth);
if (node.terminate == true)
{
// Display word
print(" " + (output + node.data) + "\n");
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
this.printWords(node.equal, output + node.data.toString(), depth + 1);
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.right, output, depth);
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
fun insert(rootNode: TreeNode ? , word : String, position: Int): TreeNode ?
{
var node: TreeNode ? = rootNode;
if (rootNode == null)
{
node = TreeNode(word.get(position));
}
if (word.get(position) < node!!.data)
{
node.left = this.insert(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.get(position) > node.data)
{
node.right = this.insert(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if ((position + 1) < word.length)
{
node.equal = this.insert(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
node.terminate = true;
}
}
return node;
}
// Handles the request of add new node
{
if (word.length == 0)
{
return;
}
this.root = this.insert(this.root, word, 0);
}
fun searchElement(node: TreeNode ? , word : String, position: Int): Boolean
{
if (node == null)
{
return false;
}
else if (word.get(position) < node.data)
{
return this.searchElement(node.left, word, position);
}
else if (word.get(position) > node.data)
{
return this.searchElement(node.right, word, position);
}
else
{
if (position + 1 < word.length)
{
// When word not empty
return this.searchElement(node.equal, word, position + 1);
}
else
{
// returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate;
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
fun searchTreeNode(word: String): Unit
{
print("\n Given : [" + word + "] \n");
if (word.length > 0 && this.searchElement(this.root, word, 0) == true)
{
print(" Found\n");
}
else
{
}
}
}
fun main(args: Array < String > ): Unit
{
val tree: TernarySearchTree = TernarySearchTree();
print(" Ternary search tree\n");
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0);
// Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk");
tree.searchTreeNode("fee");
tree.searchTreeNode("milks");
}

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]
package main
import "fmt"
/*
Go Program
Ternary Search Tree Insertion
*/
// Ternary search tree
type TreeNode struct {
data byte
terminate bool
left * TreeNode
equal * TreeNode
right * TreeNode
}
func getTreeNode(data byte) * TreeNode {
var me *TreeNode = &TreeNode {}
me.data = data
me.left = nil
me.right = nil
me.equal = nil
me.terminate = false
return me
}
type TernarySearchTree struct {
root * TreeNode
}
func getTernarySearchTree() * TernarySearchTree {
var me *TernarySearchTree = &TernarySearchTree {}
me.root = nil
return me
}
// Print the all words using recursion
func(this TernarySearchTree) printWords(node * TreeNode,
output string, depth int) {
if node != nil {
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.left, output, depth)
if node.terminate == true {
// Display word
fmt.Print(" ", (output + string(int(node.data))), "\n")
}
// Visit equal (middle) subtree
this.printWords(node.equal, output + string(int(node.data)), depth + 1)
// Visit left subtree
this.printWords(node.right, output, depth)
}
}
// Function to insert a new word in a Ternary Search Tree
func(this TernarySearchTree) insert(rootNode * TreeNode,
word string, position int) * TreeNode {
var node * TreeNode = rootNode
if rootNode == nil {
node = getTreeNode(word[position])
}
if word[position] < node.data {
node.left = this.insert(node.left, word, position)
} else if word[position] > node.data {
node.right = this.insert(node.right, word, position)
} else {
if (position + 1) < len(word) {
node.equal = this.insert(node.equal, word, position + 1)
} else {
node.terminate = true
}
}
return node
}
// Handles the request of add new node
if len(word) == 0 {
return
}
this.root = this.insert(this.root, word, 0)
}
func(this TernarySearchTree) searchElement(node * TreeNode,
word string, position int) bool {
if node == nil {
return false
} else if word[position] < node.data {
return this.searchElement(node.left, word, position)
} else if word[position] > node.data {
return this.searchElement(node.right, word, position)
} else {
if position + 1 < len(word) {
// When word not empty
return this.searchElement(node.equal, word, position + 1)
} else {
// returns status to terminate word
return node.terminate
}
}
}
// Handles the request of search word
func(this TernarySearchTree) searchTreeNode(word string) {
fmt.Print("\n Given : [", word, "] \n")
if len(word) > 0 && this.searchElement(this.root, word, 0) == true {
fmt.Print(" Found\n")
} else {
}
}
func main() {
var tree * TernarySearchTree = getTernarySearchTree()
fmt.Print(" Ternary search tree\n")
tree.printWords(tree.root, "", 0)
// Test Cases
tree.searchTreeNode("milk")
tree.searchTreeNode("fee")
tree.searchTreeNode("milks")
}

#### input

Ternary search tree
co
code
fee
feel
milk
run

Given : [milk]
Found

Given : [fee]
Found

Given : [milks]

## Time Complexity

• Insertion: The time complexity of inserting a word in the TST depends on the height of the tree. In the worst case, it's O(h), where h is the height of the tree. However, on average, for a balanced TST, the insertion complexity is closer to O(log n), where n is the number of words in the TST.
• Search: Similar to insertion, the search time complexity is also O(h) in the worst case and O(log n) on average.
• Traversal: The traversal operation prints all words in lexicographical order, and thus, it takes O(n) time, where n is the number of words in the TST.

## Comment

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### New Comment

Someone     664 Day ago
Very glad that you posted this solution!
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