Posted on by Kalkicode
Code Matrix

# Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise

The problem is to rotate the middle diamond elements in a square matrix anticlockwise. The diamond elements are the central elements of the matrix that form a diamond shape. The task is to rotate these elements anticlockwise by one position within the diamond shape.

## Example

Consider the following 5x5 matrix:

``````1  2   3  4  5
6  -7  8  2  10
2  12 13 15  16
17 2  19 20  21
22 23 24 25  2``````

After rotating the middle diamond elements anticlockwise by one position, the matrix becomes:

``````
3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24

2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````

## Idea to Solve the Problem

To rotate the middle diamond elements in the matrix anticlockwise, we can follow these steps:

1. Define a class `MyMatrix` to handle matrix operations.
2. Implement the `rotate_element` function to rotate the diamond elements in a square matrix anticlockwise: a. Calculate the middle column and middle row of the diamond. b. Traverse the four edges of the diamond and rotate the elements in an anticlockwise manner. c. Perform the rotation by swapping elements and using temporary variables. d. Recursively call the `rotate_element` function for the inner diamond, if applicable.
3. Implement the `rotate` function to check if the matrix is a valid square matrix with an odd number of rows and columns. If it is, calculate the number of diamond elements and call the `rotate_element` function.
4. Display the matrix before and after the rotation using the `diamond_view` function.

## Pseudocode

``````rotate_element(matrix, s_row, s_col, e_row, e_col, k):
mid_col = s_col + ((e_col - s_col) / 2)
mid_row = mid_col
back = matrix[s_row][mid_col]
for i from mid_col - 1 to s_col:
# Rotate left edge
...
for i from s_col + 1 to mid_col:
# Rotate top edge
...
for i from mid_col + 1 to e_col:
# Rotate right edge
...
for i from e_col - 1 to mid_col:
# Rotate bottom edge
...
if s_row + 1 <= e_row - 1 and k > 0:
# Recursive call
rotate_element(matrix, s_row + 1, s_col + 1, e_row - 1, e_col - 1, k)

rotate(matrix):
if matrix is not a valid square matrix with odd size:
return
size = calculate number of diamond elements
rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, rows - 1, cols - 1, size)

show(matrix, row, col):
print elements in a row

diamond_view(matrix):
print matrix in diamond view format

matrix = {
{1,  2,  3,  4,  5},
{6,  -7, 8,  2,  10},
{2,  12, 13, 15,  16},
{17, 2,  19, 20,  21},
{22, 23, 24, 25,  2}
}
obj = MyMatrix(matrix)
obj.diamond_view(matrix)
obj.rotate(matrix)
obj.diamond_view(matrix)``````

## Code Solution

``````/*
C Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/
#include<stdio.h>
#define ROW 5
#define COL 5

//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
void rotate_element(int matrix[ROW][COL],
int s_row,
int s_col,
int e_row,
int e_col,
int k)
{

//Calculate middle column in matrix
int mid_col = s_col + ((e_col - s_col)/2);

//Calculate middle row in matrix
int mid_row = mid_col;

int back=matrix[s_row][mid_col],current=0;

for (int i = mid_col-1,j=1; i >= s_col && k > 0 ; --i,k--,j++)
{
current = matrix[s_row+j][i];

matrix[s_row+j][i] = back ;

back=current;
}

for (int i = s_col+1,j=1; i <= mid_col && k > 0 ; ++i,k--,j++)
{
current  = matrix[(mid_row)+j][i];
matrix[(mid_row)+j][i] = back ;
back=current;
}

for (int i = mid_col+1,j=1; i <= e_col && k > 0 ; ++i,k--,j++)
{

current = matrix[e_row-j][i];
matrix[e_row-j][i] = back ;
back=current;
}

for (int i = e_col-1,j=1; i >= mid_col && k > 0 ; --i,k--,j++)
{

current = matrix[(mid_row)-j][i] ;
matrix[(mid_row)-j][i]= back ;
back=current;
}

if(s_row+1 <= e_row-1 && k > 0)
{
//Recursive call
rotate_element(matrix, s_row+1, s_col+1, e_row-1, e_col-1, k);
}

}
//Count number of diamond element
int element_size(int col)
{
int counter=0;

while(col>0)
{
counter+=col;
col--;
}
return counter*4;

}
void rotate(int matrix[ROW][COL])
{
if(ROW != COL || COL % 2 == 0)
{
printf("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
int size=element_size((COL)/2)+1;

rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, ROW-1, COL-1, size);

}

void show(int arr[ROW][COL],int row,int col)
{
for (int i = col; i < (COL)-col; ++i)
{
printf("%3d",arr[row][i] );
}
}
void space(int size)
{
for (int i = 0; i <= size; ++i)
{
printf(" ");
}
}
void diamond_view(int arr[ROW][COL])
{
if(ROW != COL || COL%2==0)
{
printf("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}

int col = COL / 2;
int counter = col*3;
int distance = 3;
for (int i = 0; i < ROW; ++i)
{
space(counter);
show(arr,i,col);

if(i < ROW/2)
{
counter -= distance;
col--;
}
else
{
col++;
counter += distance;
}

printf("\n");
}

}
int main(){

//Define matrix element
int matrix[ROW][COL] ={
{1,  2,   3,  4,  5},
{6,  -7,  8,  2,  10},
{2, 12, 13, 15,  16},
{17, 2, 19, 20,  21},
{22, 23, 24, 25,  2}

};
diamond_view(matrix);
rotate(matrix);
diamond_view(matrix);

return 0;
}```
```

#### Output

``````         3
-7  8  2
2 12 13 15 16
2 19 20
24
2
3 15 16
-7  8 13 19 20
2 12 24
2``````
``````/*
C++ Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/
#include<iostream>
#define ROW 5
#define COL 5
using namespace std;

class MyMatrix {
public:
int rows;
int cols;
MyMatrix() {
//Get the size of matrix
this->rows = ROW;
this->cols = COL;
}
//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
void rotate_element(int matrix[][COL], int s_row, int s_col, int e_row, int e_col, int k) {
//Calculate middle column in matrix
int mid_col = s_col + ((e_col - s_col) / 2);
//Calculate middle row in matrix
int mid_row = mid_col;
int back = matrix[s_row][mid_col], current = 0;

for (int i = mid_col-1,j=1; i >= s_col && k > 0 ; --i,k--,j++)
{
current = matrix[s_row+j][i];

matrix[s_row+j][i] = back ;

back=current;
}

for (int i = s_col+1,j=1; i <= mid_col && k > 0 ; ++i,k--,j++)
{
current  = matrix[(mid_row)+j][i];
matrix[(mid_row)+j][i] = back ;
back=current;
}

for (int i = mid_col+1,j=1; i <= e_col && k > 0 ; ++i,k--,j++)
{

current = matrix[e_row-j][i];
matrix[e_row-j][i] = back ;
back=current;
}

for (int i = e_col-1,j=1; i >= mid_col && k > 0 ; --i,k--,j++)
{

current = matrix[(mid_row)-j][i] ;
matrix[(mid_row)-j][i]= back ;
back=current;
}

if(s_row+1 <= e_row-1 && k > 0)
{
//Recursive call
rotate_element(matrix, s_row+1, s_col+1, e_row-1, e_col-1, k);
}
}
//Count number of diamond element
int element_size(int col) {
int counter = 0;
while (col > 0) {
counter += col;
col--;
}
return counter *4;
}
void rotate(int matrix[][COL]) {
if (this->rows != this->cols || this->cols % 2 == 0) {
cout << "\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix";
return;
}
int size = this->element_size((this->cols) / 2) + 1;
this->rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, this->rows - 1, this->cols - 1, size);
}
void show(int matrix[][COL], int row, int col) {
for (int i = col; i < (this->cols) - col; ++i) {
cout << " " << matrix[row][i] << " ";
}
}
void space(int size) {
for (int i = 0; i <= size; ++i) {
cout << " ";
}
}
void diamond_view(int matrix[][COL]) {
if (this->rows != this->cols || this->cols % 2 == 0) {
cout << "\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix";
return;
}
int col = this->cols / 2;
int counter = col *3;
int distance = 3;
for (int i = 0; i < this->rows; ++i) {
this->space(counter);
this->show(matrix, i, col);
if (i < this->rows / 2) {
counter -= distance;
col--;
} else {
col++;
counter += distance;
}
cout << "\n";
}
}
};
int main() {
int matrix[][COL] = {
{
1,
2,
3,
4,
5
},
{
6,
-7,
8,
2,
10
},
{
2,
12,
13,
15,
16
},
{
17,
2,
19,
20,
21
},
{
22,
23,
24,
25,
2
}
};
MyMatrix obj ;
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
obj.rotate(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
return 0;
}```
```

#### Output

``````        3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````
``````/*
Java Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/
public class MyMatrix {

public int rows;
public int cols;
public MyMatrix(int [][]matrix)
{
//Get the size of matrix
this.rows = matrix.length;
this.cols = matrix[0].length;
}
//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
public void rotate_element(int [][]matrix,
int s_row,
int s_col,
int e_row,
int e_col,
int k)
{

//Calculate middle column in matrix
int mid_col = s_col + ((e_col - s_col)/2);

//Calculate middle row in matrix
int mid_row = mid_col;

int back=matrix[s_row][mid_col],current=0;

for (int i = mid_col-1,j=1; i >= s_col && k > 0 ; --i,k--,j++)
{
current = matrix[s_row+j][i];

matrix[s_row+j][i] = back ;

back=current;
}

for (int i = s_col+1,j=1; i <= mid_col && k > 0 ; ++i,k--,j++)
{
current  = matrix[(mid_row)+j][i];
matrix[(mid_row)+j][i] = back ;
back=current;
}

for (int i = mid_col+1,j=1; i <= e_col && k > 0 ; ++i,k--,j++)
{

current = matrix[e_row-j][i];
matrix[e_row-j][i] = back ;
back=current;
}

for (int i = e_col-1,j=1; i >= mid_col && k > 0 ; --i,k--,j++)
{

current = matrix[(mid_row)-j][i] ;
matrix[(mid_row)-j][i]= back ;
back=current;
}

if(s_row+1 <= e_row-1 && k > 0)
{
//Recursive call
rotate_element(matrix, s_row+1, s_col+1, e_row-1, e_col-1, k);
}

}
//Count number of diamond element
public int element_size(int col)
{
int counter=0;

while(col>0)
{
counter+=col;
col--;
}
return counter*4;

}
public void rotate(int [][]matrix)
{
if(this.rows != this.cols || this.cols % 2 == 0)
{
System.out.print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
int size=element_size((this.cols)/2)+1;

rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, this.rows-1, this.cols-1, size);

}

public void show(int [][]matrix,int row,int col)
{
for (int i = col; i < (this.cols)-col; ++i)
{
System.out.print(" "+matrix[row][i] +" ");
}
}
public void space(int size)
{
for (int i = 0; i <= size; ++i)
{
System.out.print(" ");
}
}
public void diamond_view(int [][]matrix)
{
if(this.rows != this.cols || this.cols%2==0)
{
System.out.print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}

int col = this.cols / 2;
int counter = col*3;
int distance = 3;
for (int i = 0; i < this.rows; ++i)
{
space(counter);
show(matrix,i,col);

if(i < this.rows/2)
{
counter -= distance;
col--;
}
else
{
col++;
counter += distance;
}

System.out.print("\n");
}

}

public static void main(String[] args)
{
//Define matrix element
int [][]matrix={
{1,  2,   3,  4,  5},
{6,  -7,  8,  2,  10},
{2, 12, 13, 15,  16},
{17, 2, 19, 20,  21},
{22, 23, 24, 25,  2}

};
MyMatrix obj = new MyMatrix(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
obj.rotate(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);

}
}```
```

#### Output

``````        3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````
``````using System;

/*
C# Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/

public class MyMatrix {
int rows;
int cols;
MyMatrix(int[,] matrix) {
//Get the size of matrix
this.rows = matrix.GetLength(0);
this.cols = matrix.GetLength(1);
}
//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
public void rotate_element(int[,] matrix, int s_row, int s_col, int e_row, int e_col, int k) {
//Calculate middle column in matrix
int mid_col = s_col + ((e_col - s_col) / 2);
//Calculate middle row in matrix
int mid_row = mid_col;
int back = matrix[s_row,mid_col], current = 0;
for (int i = mid_col - 1, j = 1; i >= s_col && k > 0; --i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[s_row + j,i];
matrix[s_row + j,i] = back;
back = current;
}
for (int i = s_col + 1, j = 1; i <= mid_col && k > 0; ++i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[(mid_row) + j,i];
matrix[(mid_row) + j,i] = back;
back = current;
}
for (int i = mid_col + 1, j = 1; i <= e_col && k > 0; ++i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[e_row - j,i];
matrix[e_row - j,i] = back;
back = current;
}
for (int i = e_col - 1, j = 1; i >= mid_col && k > 0; --i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[(mid_row) - j,i];
matrix[(mid_row) - j,i] = back;
back = current;
}
if (s_row + 1 <= e_row - 1 && k > 0) {
rotate_element(matrix, s_row + 1, s_col + 1, e_row - 1, e_col - 1, k);
}
}
//Count number of diamond element
public int element_size(int col) {
int counter = 0;
while (col > 0) {
counter += col;
col--;
}
return counter * 4;
}
public void rotate(int[,] matrix) {
if (this.rows != this.cols || this.cols % 2 == 0) {
Console.Write("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
int size = element_size((this.cols) / 2) + 1;
rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, this.rows - 1, this.cols - 1, size);
}
public void show(int[,] matrix, int row, int col) {
for (int i = col; i < (this.cols) - col; ++i) {
Console.Write(" " + matrix[row,i] + " ");
}
}
public void space(int size) {
for (int i = 0; i <= size; ++i) {
Console.Write(" ");
}
}
public void diamond_view(int[,] matrix) {
if (this.rows != this.cols || this.cols % 2 == 0) {
Console.Write("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
int col = this.cols / 2;
int counter = col * 3;
int distance = 3;
for (int i = 0; i < this.rows; ++i) {
space(counter);
show(matrix, i, col);
if (i < this.rows / 2) {
counter -= distance;
col--;
} else {
col++;
counter += distance;
}
Console.Write("\n");
}
}
public static void Main(String[] args) {
int[,]
//Define matrix element
matrix = {
{
1,
2,
3,
4,
5
},
{
6,
-7,
8,
2,
10
},
{
2,
12,
13,
15,
16
},
{
17,
2,
19,
20,
21
},
{
22,
23,
24,
25,
2
}
};
MyMatrix obj = new MyMatrix(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
obj.rotate(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
}
}```
```

#### Output

``````        3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````
``````<?php
/*
Php Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/
class MyMatrix {
public \$rows;
public \$cols;

function __construct(\$matrix) {
//Get the size of matrix
\$this->rows = count(\$matrix);
\$this->cols = count(\$matrix[0]);
}
//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise

public 	function rotate_element(&\$matrix, \$s_row, \$s_col, \$e_row, \$e_col, \$k) {
//Calculate middle column in matrix
\$mid_col = \$s_col + (intval((\$e_col - \$s_col) / 2));
//Calculate middle row in matrix
\$mid_row = \$mid_col;
\$back = \$matrix[\$s_row][\$mid_col];
\$current = 0;
for (\$i = \$mid_col - 1, \$j = 1; \$i >= \$s_col && \$k > 0; --\$i, \$k--, \$j++) {
\$current = \$matrix[\$s_row + \$j][\$i];
\$matrix[\$s_row + \$j][\$i] = \$back;
\$back = \$current;
}
for (\$i = \$s_col + 1, \$j = 1; \$i <= \$mid_col && \$k > 0; ++\$i, \$k--, \$j++) {
\$current = \$matrix[(\$mid_row) + \$j][\$i];
\$matrix[(\$mid_row) + \$j][\$i] = \$back;
\$back = \$current;
}
for (\$i = \$mid_col + 1, \$j = 1; \$i <= \$e_col && \$k > 0; ++\$i, \$k--, \$j++) {
\$current = \$matrix[\$e_row - \$j][\$i];
\$matrix[\$e_row - \$j][\$i] = \$back;
\$back = \$current;
}
for (\$i = \$e_col - 1, \$j = 1; \$i >= \$mid_col && \$k > 0; --\$i, \$k--, \$j++) {
\$current = \$matrix[(\$mid_row) - \$j][\$i];
\$matrix[(\$mid_row) - \$j][\$i] = \$back;
\$back = \$current;
}
if (\$s_row + 1 <= \$e_row - 1 && \$k > 0) {
//Recursive call
\$this->rotate_element(\$matrix, \$s_row + 1, \$s_col + 1, \$e_row - 1, \$e_col - 1, \$k);
}
}
//Count number of diamond element

public 	function element_size(\$col) {
\$counter = 0;
while (\$col > 0) {
\$counter += \$col;
\$col--;
}
return \$counter *4;
}
public 	function rotate(&\$matrix) {
if (\$this->rows != \$this->cols || \$this->cols % 2 == 0) {
echo("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
\$size = \$this->element_size(intval((\$this->cols) / 2)) + 1;
\$this->rotate_element(\$matrix, 0, 0, \$this->rows - 1, \$this->cols - 1, \$size);
}
public 	function show(\$matrix, \$row, \$col) {
for (\$i = \$col; \$i < (\$this->cols) - \$col; ++\$i) {
echo(" ". \$matrix[\$row][\$i] ." ");
}
}
public 	function space(\$size) {
for (\$i = 0; \$i <= \$size; ++\$i) {
echo(" ");
}
}
public 	function diamond_view(\$matrix) {
if (\$this->rows != \$this->cols || \$this->cols % 2 == 0) {
echo("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
\$col = intval(\$this->cols / 2);
\$counter = \$col *3;
\$distance = 3;
for (\$i = 0; \$i < \$this->rows; ++\$i) {
\$this->space(\$counter);
\$this->show(\$matrix, \$i, \$col);
if (\$i < intval(\$this->rows / 2)) {
\$counter -= \$distance;
\$col--;
} else {
\$col++;
\$counter += \$distance;
}
echo("\n");
}
}
}

function main() {
//Define matrix element
\$matrix = array(
array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5),
array(6, -7, 8, 2, 10),
array(2, 12, 13, 15, 16),
array(17, 2, 19, 20, 21),
array(22, 23, 24, 25, 2));
\$obj = new MyMatrix(\$matrix);
\$obj->diamond_view(\$matrix);
\$obj->rotate(\$matrix);
\$obj->diamond_view(\$matrix);

}
main();```
```

#### Output

``````        3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````
``````/*
Node Js Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/
class MyMatrix {
constructor(matrix) {
//Get the size of matrix
this.rows = matrix.length;
this.cols = matrix[0].length;
}

//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
rotate_element(matrix, s_row, s_col, e_row, e_col, k) {
//Calculate middle column in matrix
var mid_col = s_col + (parseInt((e_col - s_col) / 2));
//Calculate middle row in matrix
var mid_row = mid_col;
var back = matrix[s_row][mid_col];
var current = 0;
for (var i = mid_col - 1,j = 1; i >= s_col && k > 0; --i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[s_row + j][i];
matrix[s_row + j][i] = back;
back = current;
}

for (var i = s_col + 1, j = 1; i <= mid_col && k > 0; ++i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[(mid_row) + j][i];
matrix[(mid_row) + j][i] = back;
back = current;
}

for (var i = mid_col + 1, j = 1; i <= e_col && k > 0; ++i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[e_row - j][i];
matrix[e_row - j][i] = back;
back = current;
}

for (var i = e_col - 1, j = 1; i >= mid_col && k > 0; --i, k--, j++) {
current = matrix[(mid_row) - j][i];
matrix[(mid_row) - j][i] = back;
back = current;
}

if (s_row + 1 <= e_row - 1 && k > 0) {
//Recursive call
this.rotate_element(matrix, s_row + 1, s_col + 1, e_row - 1, e_col - 1, k);
}
}

//Count number of diamond element
element_size(col) {
var counter = 0;
while (col > 0) {
counter += col;
col--;
}

return counter *4;
}
rotate(matrix) {
if (this.rows != this.cols || this.cols % 2 == 0) {
process.stdout.write("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
var size = this.element_size(parseInt((this.cols) / 2)) + 1;
this.rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, this.rows - 1, this.cols - 1, size);
}
show(matrix, row, col) {
for (var i = col; i < (this.cols) - col; ++i) {
process.stdout.write(" " + matrix[row][i] + " ");
}
}
space(size) {
for (var i = 0; i <= size; ++i) {
process.stdout.write(" ");
}
}
diamond_view(matrix) {
if (this.rows != this.cols || this.cols % 2 == 0) {
process.stdout.write("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");
return;
}
var col = parseInt(this.cols / 2);
var counter = col *3;
var distance = 3;
for (var i = 0; i < this.rows; ++i) {
this.space(counter);
this.show(matrix, i, col);
if (i < parseInt(this.rows / 2)) {
counter -= distance;
col--;
} else {
col++;
counter += distance;
}

process.stdout.write("\n");
}
}
}

function main(args) {
//Define matrix element
var matrix = [
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5],
[6, -7, 8, 2, 10],
[2, 12, 13, 15, 16],
[17, 2, 19, 20, 21],
[22, 23, 24, 25, 2]
];
var obj = new MyMatrix(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
obj.rotate(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
}

main();```
```

#### Output

``````        3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````
``````#   Python 3 Program
#   Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
class MyMatrix :

def __init__(self, matrix) :
# Get the size of matrix
self.rows = len(matrix)
self.cols = len(matrix[0])

# Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
def rotate_element(self, matrix, s_row, s_col, e_row, e_col, k) :
mid_col = s_col + (int((e_col - s_col) / 2))
mid_row = mid_col
back = matrix[s_row][mid_col]
current = 0
i = mid_col - 1
j = 1
while (i >= s_col and k > 0) :
current = matrix[s_row + j][i]
matrix[s_row + j][i] = back
back = current
i -= 1
k -= 1
j += 1

i = s_col + 1
j = 1
while (i <= mid_col and k > 0) :
current = matrix[(mid_row) + j][i]
matrix[(mid_row) + j][i] = back
back = current
i += 1
k -= 1
j += 1

i = mid_col + 1
j = 1
while (i <= e_col and k > 0) :
current = matrix[e_row - j][i]
matrix[e_row - j][i] = back
back = current
i += 1
k -= 1
j += 1

i = e_col - 1
j = 1
while (i >= mid_col and k > 0) :
current = matrix[(mid_row) - j][i]
matrix[(mid_row) - j][i] = back
back = current
i -= 1
k -= 1
j += 1

if (s_row + 1 <= e_row - 1 and k > 0) :
self.rotate_element(matrix, s_row + 1, s_col + 1, e_row - 1, e_col - 1, k)

# Count number of diamond element
def element_size(self, col) :
counter = 0
while (col > 0) :
counter += col
col -= 1

return counter * 4

def rotate(self, matrix) :
if (self.rows != self.cols or self.cols % 2 == 0) :
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix", end = "")
return

size = self.element_size(int((self.cols) / 2)) + 1
self.rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, self.rows - 1, self.cols - 1, size)

def show(self, matrix, row, col) :
i = col
while (i < (self.cols) - col) :
print(" ", matrix[row][i] ,end = "")
i += 1

def space(self, size) :
i = 0
while (i <= size) :
print(" ", end = "")
i += 1

def diamond_view(self, matrix) :
if (self.rows != self.cols or self.cols % 2 == 0) :
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix", end = "")
return

col = int(self.cols / 2)
counter = col * 3
distance = 3
i = 0
while (i < self.rows) :
self.space(counter)
self.show(matrix, i, col)
if (i < int(self.rows / 2)) :
counter -= distance
col -= 1
else :
col += 1
counter += distance

print("\n", end = "")
i += 1

def main() :
matrix = [
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5],
[6, -7, 8, 2, 10],
[2, 12, 13, 15, 16],
[17, 2, 19, 20, 21],
[22, 23, 24, 25, 2]
]
obj = MyMatrix(matrix)
obj.diamond_view(matrix)
obj.rotate(matrix)
obj.diamond_view(matrix)

if __name__ == "__main__":
main()```
```

#### Output

``````         3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````
``````# Ruby Program
# Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
class MyMatrix
# Define the accessor and reader of class MyMatrix
attr_accessor :rows, :cols
def initialize(matrix)
# Get the size of matrix
self.rows = matrix.length
self.cols = matrix[0].length
end
# Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
def rotate_element(matrix, s_row, s_col, e_row, e_col, k)
mid_col = s_col + ((e_col - s_col) / 2)
mid_row = mid_col
back = matrix[s_row][mid_col]
current = 0
i = mid_col - 1
j = 1
while (i >= s_col && k > 0)
current = matrix[s_row + j][i]
matrix[s_row + j][i] = back
back = current
i -= 1
k -= 1
j += 1
end
i = s_col + 1
j = 1
while (i <= mid_col && k > 0)
current = matrix[(mid_row) + j][i]
matrix[(mid_row) + j][i] = back
back = current
i += 1
k -= 1
j += 1
end
i = mid_col + 1
j = 1
while (i <= e_col && k > 0)
current = matrix[e_row - j][i]
matrix[e_row - j][i] = back
back = current
i += 1
k -= 1
j += 1
end
i = e_col - 1
j = 1
while (i >= mid_col && k > 0)
current = matrix[(mid_row) - j][i]
matrix[(mid_row) - j][i] = back
back = current
i -= 1
k -= 1
j += 1
end
if (s_row + 1 <= e_row - 1 && k > 0)
self.rotate_element(matrix, s_row + 1, s_col + 1, e_row - 1, e_col - 1, k)
end
end
# Count number of diamond element
def element_size(col)
counter = 0
while (col > 0)
counter += col
col -= 1
end
return counter * 4
end
def rotate(matrix)
if (self.rows != self.cols || self.cols % 2 == 0)
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix")
return
end
size = self.element_size((self.cols) / 2) + 1
self.rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, self.rows - 1, self.cols - 1, size)
end
def show(matrix, row, col)
i = col
while (i < (self.cols) - col)
print(" ", matrix[row][i] ," ")
i += 1
end
end
def space(size)
i = 0
while (i <= size)
print(" ")
i += 1
end
end
def diamond_view(matrix)
if (self.rows != self.cols || self.cols % 2 == 0)
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix")
return
end
col = self.cols / 2
counter = col * 3
distance = 3
i = 0
while (i < self.rows)
self.space(counter)
self.show(matrix, i, col)
if (i < self.rows / 2)
counter -= distance
col -= 1
else
col += 1
counter += distance
end
print("\n")
i += 1
end
end
end
def main()
matrix = [
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5],
[6, -7, 8, 2, 10],
[2, 12, 13, 15, 16],
[17, 2, 19, 20, 21],
[22, 23, 24, 25, 2]
]
obj = MyMatrix.new(matrix)
obj.diamond_view(matrix)
obj.rotate(matrix)
obj.diamond_view(matrix)
end

main()```
```

#### Output

``````        3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2
``````
``````/*
Scala Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/
class MyMatrix(var rows: Int,
var cols: Int) {

def this(matrix: Array[Array[Int]]) {
//Get the size of matrix
this(matrix.length,matrix(0).length);
}
//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
def rotate_element(matrix: Array[Array[Int]], s_row: Int, s_col: Int, e_row: Int, e_col: Int, k_size: Int): Unit = {
var k : Int = k_size;
val mid_col: Int = s_col + (((e_col - s_col) / 2).toInt);
val mid_row: Int = mid_col;
var back: Int = matrix(s_row)(mid_col);
var current: Int = 0;
var i: Int = mid_col - 1;
var j: Int = 1;
while (i >= s_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix(s_row + j)(i);
matrix(s_row + j)(i) = back;
back = current;
i -= 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
i = s_col + 1;
j = 1;
while (i <= mid_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix((mid_row) + j)(i);
matrix((mid_row) + j)(i) = back;
back = current;
i += 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
i = mid_col + 1;
j = 1;
while (i <= e_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix(e_row - j)(i);
matrix(e_row - j)(i) = back;
back = current;
i += 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
i = e_col - 1;
j = 1;
while (i >= mid_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix((mid_row) - j)(i);
matrix((mid_row) - j)(i) = back;
back = current;
i -= 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
if (s_row + 1 <= e_row - 1 && k > 0) {
this.rotate_element(matrix, s_row + 1, s_col + 1, e_row - 1, e_col - 1, k);
}
}
//Count number of diamond element
def element_size(size: Int): Int = {
var counter: Int = 0;
var col: Int = size;
while (col > 0) {
counter += col;
col -= 1;
}
return counter * 4;
}
def rotate(matrix: Array[Array[Int]]): Unit = {
if (this.rows != this.cols || this.cols % 2 == 0) {
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");

return;
}
val size: Int = this.element_size(((this.cols) / 2).toInt) + 1;
this.rotate_element(matrix, 0, 0, this.rows - 1, this.cols - 1, size);
}
def show(matrix: Array[Array[Int]], row: Int, col: Int): Unit = {
var i: Int = col;
while (i < (this.cols) - col) {
print(" " + matrix(row)(i) + " ");
i += 1;
}
}
def space(size: Int): Unit = {
var i: Int = 0;
while (i <= size) {
print(" ");
i += 1;
}
}
def diamond_view(matrix: Array[Array[Int]]): Unit = {
if (this.rows != this.cols || this.cols % 2 == 0) {
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix");

return;
}
var col: Int = (this.cols / 2).toInt;
var counter: Int = col * 3;
val distance: Int = 3;
var i: Int = 0;
while (i < this.rows) {
this.space(counter);
this.show(matrix, i, col);

if (i < (this.rows / 2).toInt) {
counter -= distance;
col -= 1;
} else {
col += 1;
counter += distance;
}
print("\n");
i += 1;
}
}
}
object Main {
def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
val matrix: Array[Array[Int]] = Array(
Array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5),
Array(6, -7, 8, 2, 10),
Array(2, 12, 13, 15, 16),
Array(17, 2, 19, 20, 21),
Array(22, 23, 24, 25, 2));
val obj: MyMatrix = new MyMatrix(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
obj.rotate(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
}
}```
```

#### Output

``````        3
-7  8  2
2  12  13  15  16
2  19  20
24
2
3  15  16
-7  8  13  19  20
2  12  24
2``````
``````/*
Swift Program
Rotate middle diamond element in matrix by anticlockwise
*/
class MyMatrix {
var rows: Int;
var cols: Int;
init(_ matrix: [
[Int]
]) {
//Get the size of matrix
self.rows = matrix.count;
self.cols = matrix[0].count;
}
//Rotate diamond element in square matrix anticlockwise
func rotate_element(_ matrix: inout [
[Int]
], _ s_row: Int, _ s_col: Int, _ e_row: Int, _ e_col: Int, _ k_size: Int) {
var k : Int = k_size;
let mid_col: Int = s_col + ((e_col - s_col) / 2);
let mid_row: Int = mid_col;
var back: Int = matrix[s_row][mid_col];
var current: Int = 0;
var i: Int = mid_col - 1;
var j: Int = 1;
while (i >= s_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix[s_row + j][i];
matrix[s_row + j][i] = back;
back = current;
i -= 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
i = s_col + 1;
j = 1;
while (i <= mid_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix[(mid_row) + j][i];
matrix[(mid_row) + j][i] = back;
back = current;
i += 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
i = mid_col + 1;
j = 1;
while (i <= e_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix[e_row - j][i];
matrix[e_row - j][i] = back;
back = current;
i += 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
i = e_col - 1;
j = 1;
while (i >= mid_col && k > 0) {
current = matrix[(mid_row) - j][i];
matrix[(mid_row) - j][i] = back;
back = current;
i -= 1;
k -= 1;
j += 1;
}
if (s_row + 1 <= e_row - 1 && k > 0) {
self.rotate_element(&matrix, s_row + 1, s_col + 1, e_row - 1, e_col - 1, k);
}
}
//Count number of diamond element
func element_size(_ size: Int) -> Int {
var counter: Int = 0;
var col: Int = size;
while (col > 0) {
counter += col;
col -= 1;
}
return counter * 4;
}
func rotate(_ matrix: inout [
[Int]
]) {
if (self.rows != self.cols || self.cols % 2 == 0) {
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix", terminator: "");
return;
}
let size: Int = self.element_size((self.cols) / 2) + 1;
self.rotate_element(&matrix, 0, 0, self.rows - 1, self.cols - 1, size);
}
func show(_ matrix: [
[Int]
], _ row: Int, _ col: Int) {
var i: Int = col;
while (i < (self.cols) - col) {
print(matrix[row][i] , terminator: " ");
i += 1;
}
}
func space(_ size: Int) {
var i: Int = 0;
while (i <= size) {
print( terminator: " ");
i += 1;
}
}
func diamond_view(_ matrix: [
[Int]
]) {
if (self.rows != self.cols || self.cols % 2 == 0) {
print("\nNot a valid perfect Odd square matrix", terminator: "");
return;
}
var col: Int = self.cols / 2;
var counter: Int = col * 3;
let distance: Int = 3;
var i: Int = 0;
while (i < self.rows) {
self.space(counter);
self.show(matrix, i, col);
if (i < self.rows / 2) {
counter -= distance;
col -= 1;
} else {
col += 1;
counter += distance;
}
print("\n", terminator: "");
i += 1;
}
}
}
func main() {
var matrix: [
[Int]
] = [
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5],
[6, -7, 8, 2, 10],
[2, 12, 13, 15, 16],
[17, 2, 19, 20, 21],
[22, 23, 24, 25, 2]
];
let obj: MyMatrix = MyMatrix(matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
obj.rotate(&matrix);
obj.diamond_view(matrix);
}
main();```
```

#### Output

``````       3
-7 8 2
2 12 13 15 16
2 19 20
24
2
3 15 16
-7 8 13 19 20
2 12 24
2``````

## Output Explanation

The mentioned Java code correctly implements the above algorithm to rotate the middle diamond elements in the matrix anticlockwise. It calculates the middle column and row of the diamond and traverses the edges while rotating the elements. The `rotate` function checks for valid matrix dimensions and calculates the number of diamond elements. The output displays the matrix before and after the rotation.

## Time Complexity

The time complexity of the mentioned solution is O(N), where N is the number of diamond elements in the matrix. The `rotate_element` function iterates through each diamond element exactly once and performs constant-time operations (swapping elements). Therefore, the overall time complexity is O(N).

## Comment

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