Posted on by Kalkicode
Code Pattern

# Print X inside rectangular box

In this article, we will discuss a program that prints an 'X' pattern inside a rectangular box. The program takes the height of the box as input and generates the desired pattern using asterisks ('*'). We will explain the problem statement, provide a suitable example, discuss the algorithm and pseudocode, and analyze the time complexity of the code. Let's dive in!

## Problem Statement

The problem is to create a program that can generate an 'X' pattern inside a rectangular box of a given height. The 'X' pattern is formed by placing asterisks ('*') in a specific arrangement. The height of the box represents the number of rows and columns in the pattern. The program should be able to handle different heights and produce the corresponding 'X' pattern.

### Example

Let's consider an example to better understand the problem. Suppose we want to create an 'X' pattern inside a rectangular box with a height of 9. The output would look as follows:

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

## Algorithm and Pseudocode

To solve this problem, we can use nested loops to iterate over each element of the box and determine whether to print an asterisk or a blank space. The algorithm can be summarized as follows:

1. Accept the height of the box as input.
2. Check if the height is less than or equal to 2. If so, return.
3. Print the height value as a header for clarity.
4. Initialize two loop control variables, 'i' and 'j'.
5. Iterate over the rows using the 'i' variable from 0 to height-1.
6. For each row, iterate over the columns using the 'j' variable from 0 to height-1.
7. Check the conditions for printing an asterisk:
• If i is 0 (top row), j is 0 (left column), i is equal to j, i is height-1 (bottom row), height-1-i is equal to j, or j is height-1 (right column), print an asterisk.
• Otherwise, print a blank space.
8. Print a newline character after each row is completed.
9. Repeat steps 5-8 until all rows and columns are printed.
10. End of the program.

Here is the pseudocode representing the algorithm:

function print_x(height):
if height <= 2:
return
print "Height: height"
for i in range(height):
for j in range(height):
if i == 0 or j == i or i == height - 1 or height - 1 - i == j or j == 0 or j == height - 1:
print "* "
else:
print "  "
print newline

## Code Solution

Here given code implementation process.

//C Program
//Print X inside rectangular box
#include <stdio.h>

//Print X star pattern of given height
void print_x(int height)
{
if (height <= 2)
{
return;
}
printf("\nHeight : %d  \n\n", height);
//Loop controlling variables
int i = 0, j = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
for (i = 0; i < height; ++i)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
for (j = 0; j < height; ++j)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)
{
printf("* ");
}
else
{
printf("  ");
}
}
printf("\n");
}
}
int main()
{
//Simple test
print_x(9);
print_x(7);
print_x(10);
return 0;
}

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
/*
Java Program
Print X inside rectangular box
*/
class MyPattern
{
//Print X star pattern of given height
public void print_x(int height)
{
if (height <= 2)
{
return;
}
System.out.print("\nHeight : " + height + " \n\n");
//Loop controlling variables
int i = 0, j = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
for (i = 0; i < height; ++i)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
for (j = 0; j < height; ++j)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)
{
System.out.print("* ");
}
else
{
System.out.print("  ");
}
}
System.out.print("\n");
}
}
public static void main(String[] args)
{
MyPattern obj = new MyPattern();
//Simple test
obj.print_x(9);
obj.print_x(7);
obj.print_x(10);
}
}

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
/*
C++ Program
Print X inside rectangular box
*/
#include<iostream>

using namespace std;
class MyPattern
{
public:
//Print X star pattern of given height
void print_x(int height)
{
if (height <= 2)
{
return;
}
cout << "\nHeight : " << height << " \n\n";
//Loop controlling variables
int i = 0, j = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
for (i = 0; i < height; ++i)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
for (j = 0; j < height; ++j)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)
{
cout << "* ";
}
else
{
cout << "  ";
}
}
cout << "\n";
}
}
};
int main()
{
MyPattern obj;
//Simple test
obj.print_x(9);
obj.print_x(7);
obj.print_x(10);
return 0;
}

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
/*
C# Program
Print X inside rectangular box
*/
using System;
class MyPattern
{
//Print X star pattern of given height
public void print_x(int height)
{
if (height <= 2)
{
return;
}
Console.Write("\nHeight : " + height + " \n\n");
//Loop controlling variables
int i = 0, j = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
for (i = 0; i < height; i++)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
for (j = 0; j < height; j++)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)
{
Console.Write("* ");
}
else
{
Console.Write("  ");
}
}
Console.Write("\n");
}
}
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
MyPattern obj = new MyPattern();
//Simple test
obj.print_x(9);
obj.print_x(7);
obj.print_x(10);
}
}

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
<?php
/*
Php Program
Print X inside rectangular box
*/
class MyPattern
{
//Print X star pattern of given height
function print_x(\$height)
{
if (\$height <= 2)
{
return;
}
echo "\nHeight : ". \$height ." \n\n";
//Loop controlling variables
\$i = 0;
\$j = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
for (\$i = 0; \$i < \$height; ++\$i)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
for (\$j = 0; \$j < \$height; ++\$j)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (\$i == 0 || \$j == \$i || \$i == \$height - 1 || \$height - 1 - \$i == \$j || \$j == 0 || \$j == \$height - 1)
{
echo "* ";
}
else
{
echo "  ";
}
}
echo "\n";
}
}
}

function main()
{
\$obj = new MyPattern();
//Simple test
\$obj->print_x(9);
\$obj->print_x(7);
\$obj->print_x(10);
}
main();

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
/*
Node Js Program
Print X inside rectangular box
*/
class MyPattern
{
//Print X star pattern of given height
print_x(height)
{
if (height <= 2)
{
return;
}
process.stdout.write("\nHeight : " + height + " \n\n");
//Loop controlling variables
var i = 0;
var j = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
for (i = 0; i < height; ++i)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
for (j = 0; j < height; ++j)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)
{
process.stdout.write("* ");
}
else
{
process.stdout.write("  ");
}
}
process.stdout.write("\n");
}
}
}

function main()
{
var obj = new MyPattern();
//Simple test
obj.print_x(9);
obj.print_x(7);
obj.print_x(10);
}
main();

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
#   Python 3 Program
#   Print X inside rectangular box

class MyPattern :
# Print X star pattern of given height
def print_x(self, height) :
if (height <= 2) :
return

print("\nHeight : ", height ," \n\n", end = "")
# Loop controlling variables
i = 0
j = 0
# Loop, which is control the printing row operations
while (i < height) :
# Loop, which is control the printing column operations
j = 0
while (j < height) :
# Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 or j == i or i == height - 1 or height - 1 - i == j or j == 0 or j == height - 1) :
print("* ", end = "")
else :
print("  ", end = "")

j += 1

print("\n", end = "")
i += 1

def main() :
obj = MyPattern()
# Simple test
obj.print_x(9)
obj.print_x(7)
obj.print_x(10)

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

#### Output

Height :  9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height :  7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height :  10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
#   Ruby Program
#   Print X inside rectangular box

class MyPattern

# Print X star pattern of given height
def print_x(height)

if (height <= 2)

return
end
print("\nHeight : ", height ," \n\n")
# Loop controlling variables
i = 0
j = 0
# Loop, which is control the printing row operations
while (i < height)

# Loop, which is control the printing column operations
j = 0
while (j < height)

# Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)

print("* ")
else

print("  ")
end
j += 1
end
print("\n")
i += 1
end
end
end
def main()

obj = MyPattern.new()
# Simple test
obj.print_x(9)
obj.print_x(7)
obj.print_x(10)
end
main()

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
/*
Scala Program
Print X inside rectangular box
*/
class MyPattern
{
//Print X star pattern of given height
def print_x(height: Int): Unit = {
if (height <= 2)
{
return;
}
print("\nHeight : " + height + " \n\n");
//Loop controlling variables
var i: Int = 0;
var j: Int = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
while (i < height)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
j = 0;
while (j < height)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)
{
print("* ");
}
else
{
print("  ");
}
j += 1;
}
print("\n");
i += 1;
}
}
}
object Main
{
def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
var obj: MyPattern = new MyPattern();
//Simple test
obj.print_x(9);
obj.print_x(7);
obj.print_x(10);
}
}

#### Output

Height : 9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height : 7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height : 10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *
/*
Swift Program
Print X inside rectangular box
*/
class MyPattern
{
//Print X star pattern of given height
func print_x(_ height: Int)
{
if (height <= 2)
{
return;
}
print("\nHeight : ", height ," \n\n", terminator: "");
//Loop controlling variables
var i: Int = 0;
var j: Int = 0;
//Loop, which is control the printing row operations
while (i < height)
{
//Loop, which is control the printing column operations
j = 0;
while (j < height)
{
//Condition which is printing a star element
if (i == 0 || j == i || i == height - 1 || height - 1 - i == j || j == 0 || j == height - 1)
{
print("* ", terminator: "");
}
else
{
print("  ", terminator: "");
}
j += 1;
}
print("\n", terminator: "");
i += 1;
}
}
}
func main()
{
let obj: MyPattern = MyPattern();
//Simple test
obj.print_x(9);
obj.print_x(7);
obj.print_x(10);
}
main();

#### Output

Height :  9

* * * * * * * * *
* *           * *
*   *       *   *
*     *   *     *
*       *       *
*     *   *     *
*   *       *   *
* *           * *
* * * * * * * * *

Height :  7

* * * * * * *
* *       * *
*   *   *   *
*     *     *
*   *   *   *
* *       * *
* * * * * * *

Height :  10

* * * * * * * * * *
* *             * *
*   *         *   *
*     *     *     *
*       * *       *
*       * *       *
*     *     *     *
*   *         *   *
* *             * *
* * * * * * * * * *

## Time Complexity

The time complexity of the program can be analyzed by examining the nested loops. The outer loop runs 'height' number of times, and the inner loop also runs 'height' number of times. Therefore, the total number of iterations is 'height' * 'height', which gives us a time complexity of O(height^2).

## Finally

In this article, we discussed a C program that generates an 'X' pattern inside a rectangular box of a given height. We explained the problem statement, provided a suitable example, described the algorithm and pseudocode, and analyzed the time complexity of the code. The program can produce visually appealing 'X' patterns for various input heights, and the algorithm used allows for easy understanding and implementation. Feel free to try out the program with different input values and explore further modifications to enhance its functionality.

## Comment

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