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Implement B + Tree

In the realm of data structures, the B+ tree stands as a remarkable solution for indexing and managing large datasets efficiently. This article takes a deep dive into the implementation of a B+ tree in C. With clear explanations, illustrative code, and an example, we'll uncover the intricacies of B+ tree creation, insertion, and traversal.

Problem Statement and Description

This article aims to implement a B+ tree from scratch using C programming. We'll cover tree node creation, insertion of elements, and a method to print the elements in order. The code will be explained step by step, allowing readers to understand how a B+ tree functions and how elements are organized within it.

Example

We'll create a B+ tree with a degree of 4 and insert the following elements: 10, 7, 15, 2, -3, 12, 35, and 14. The tree will then be printed in order, showcasing the arrangement of elements.

Idea to Solve

To solve this problem, we'll follow these key steps:

  1. Define the structures for the tree nodes and the B+ tree itself.
  2. Implement functions to create new nodes and the tree itself.
  3. Develop insertion functions to add elements to the tree while maintaining the B+ tree properties.
  4. Design a function to print the elements of the B+ tree in order.

Standard Pseudocode

struct TreeNode:
	int isLeaf
	int *keys
	int count
	TreeNode **child

struct BPTree:
	TreeNode *root
	int degree

createTree(degree):
	tree = allocate memory for BPTree
	if tree is not NULL:
		tree.degree = degree
		tree.root = NULL

createNode(degree):
	node = allocate memory for TreeNode
	if node is not NULL:
		node.keys = allocate memory for keys array
		node.child = allocate memory for child array
		node.isLeaf = 0
		node.count = 0
	return node

findParent(cursor, child):
	parent = NULL
	if cursor.isLeaf == 1 or cursor.child[0].isLeaf == 1:
		return NULL
	for i in range(cursor.count + 1):
		if cursor.child[i] == child:
			parent = cursor
			return parent
		else:
			parent = findParent(cursor.child[i], child)
			if parent is not NULL:
				return parent

insertInternal(tree, x, cursor, child):
	// Implementation details follow

insert(tree, x):
	// Implementation details follow

printNode(node):
	// Implementation details follow

Algorithm Explanation

  • The createTree function initializes a new B+ tree with the given degree.
  • The createNode function creates a new tree node with allocated memory for keys and child arrays.
  • The findParent function identifies the parent of a given child node in the B+ tree.
  • The insertInternal function handles the insertion of elements into internal nodes while maintaining properties.
  • The insert function manages the insertion process, including splitting nodes and potential root updates.
  • The printNode function traverses the B+ tree in order and prints the elements.

Code Solution

// C program
// Implement B + Tree
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

// Define tree node
struct TreeNode
{
    int isLeaf;
    int *keys;
    int count;
    struct TreeNode **child;
};

// Define tree structure
struct BPTree
{
    struct TreeNode *root;
    int degree;
};
// Returns the new B+ tree
struct BPTree *createTree(int degree)
{

    // Allocate memory of new tree
    struct BPTree *tree = (struct BPTree *) malloc(sizeof(struct BPTree));

    if (tree != NULL)
    {
        // Set degree and root value
        tree->degree = degree;
        tree->root = NULL;
    }
    else
    {
        printf("\n Memory Overflow when create new Tree");
    }
}
// Returns new B+ tree node
struct TreeNode *createNode(int degree)
{
    // Create new tree node
    struct TreeNode *node = (struct TreeNode *) malloc(sizeof(struct TreeNode));
    
    if (node != NULL)
    {
        // Create memory of node key
        node->keys = (int *) malloc((sizeof(int)) *(degree));
        // Allocate memory of node child
        node->child = (struct TreeNode **) malloc((degree + 1) *sizeof(struct TreeNode *));
        // Set initial child
        for (int i = 0; i <= degree ; ++i)
        {
            node->child[i] = NULL;
        }
        node->isLeaf = 0;
        node->count = 0;
    }
}

struct TreeNode *findParent(struct TreeNode *cursor, struct TreeNode *child)
{
    struct TreeNode *parent = NULL;

    if (cursor->isLeaf == 1 || (cursor->child[0])->isLeaf == 1)
    {
        return NULL;
    }
    for (int i = 0; i < cursor->count + 1; i++)
    {
       
        if (cursor->child[i] == child)
        {
            parent = cursor;
            return parent;
        }
        else
        {
        
            parent = findParent(cursor->child[i], child);

            if (parent != NULL)
            {
                return parent;
            }
        }
    }
  
    return parent;
}

void insertInternal(struct BPTree *tree, int x, struct TreeNode *cursor, struct TreeNode *child)
{
      
    int i = 0;
    int j = 0;
    if (cursor->count < tree->degree)
    {
     
        while (x > cursor->keys[i] && i < cursor->count)
        {
            i++;
        }
     
        for (j = cursor->count; j > i; j--)
        {
            cursor->keys[j] = cursor->keys[j - 1];
        }
 
        for (j = cursor->count + 1; j > i + 1; j--)
        {
            cursor->child[j] = cursor->child[j - 1];
        }
        cursor->keys[i] = x;
        cursor->count++;
        cursor->child[i + 1] = child;
    }
    else
    {


        struct TreeNode *newInternal = createNode(tree->degree);
        int virtualKey[tree->degree + 1];
        struct TreeNode *virtualPtr[tree->degree + 2];
      
        for (i = 0; i < tree->degree; i++)
        {
            virtualKey[i] = cursor->keys[i];
        }
        
        for (i = 0; i < tree->degree + 1; i++)
        {
            virtualPtr[i] = cursor->child[i];
        }
 
        i = 0;

        while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < tree->degree)
        {
            i++;
        }
        
        for (j = tree->degree + 1; j > i; j--)
        {
            virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1];
        }
        virtualKey[i] = x;
    
        for ( j = tree->degree + 2; j > i + 1; j--)
        {
            virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1];
        }
        virtualPtr[i + 1] = child;
        newInternal->isLeaf = 0;
        cursor->count = (tree->degree + 1) / 2;
        newInternal->count = tree->degree - (tree->degree + 1) / 2;
        for (i = 0, j = cursor->count + 1; i < newInternal->count; i++, j++)
        {
            newInternal->keys[i] = virtualKey[j];
        }
        for (i = 0, j = cursor->count + 1; i < newInternal->count + 1; i++, j++)
        {
            newInternal->child[i] = virtualPtr[j];
        }
     
        if (cursor == tree->root)
        {
           
            tree->root = createNode(tree->degree);

            tree->root->keys[0] = cursor->keys[cursor->count];

            tree->root->child[0] = cursor;

            tree->root->child[1] = newInternal;

            tree->root->isLeaf = 0;

            tree->root->count = 1;

        }
        else
        {
            insertInternal(tree, cursor->keys[cursor->count], findParent(tree->root, cursor), newInternal);
        }
    }
}
// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
void insert(struct BPTree *tree, int x)
{
    if (tree->root == NULL)
    {
        // Add first node of tree
        tree->root = createNode(tree->degree);
        tree->root->isLeaf  = 1;
        tree->root->count   = 1;
        tree->root->keys[0] = x;

    }
    else
    {
        // Loop controlling variables
        int i = 0;
        int j = 0;

        struct TreeNode *cursor = tree->root;

        struct TreeNode *parent = NULL;

        // Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
        while (cursor->isLeaf == 0)
        {
            // Get the current node
            parent = cursor;

            for (i = 0; i < cursor->count; i++)
            {
                if (x < cursor->keys[i])
                {
                    cursor = cursor->child[i];
                    break;
                }
                if (i == cursor->count - 1)
                {
                    cursor = cursor->child[i + 1];
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        if (cursor->count < tree->degree)
        {
            i = 0;
            while (x > cursor->keys[i] && i < cursor->count)
            {
                i++;
            }
            for (j = cursor->count; j > i; j--)
            {
                cursor->keys[j] = cursor->keys[j - 1];
            }
            cursor->keys[i] = x;
            cursor->count++;
            cursor->child[cursor->count] = cursor->child[cursor->count - 1];
            cursor->child[cursor->count - 1] = NULL;
        }
        else
        {
    
            struct TreeNode *newLeaf = createNode(tree->degree);

            int virtualNode[tree->degree + 2];
 
            for (i = 0; i < tree->degree; i++)
            {
                virtualNode[i] = cursor->keys[i];
            }
            i = 0;
            while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < tree->degree)
            {
                i++;
            }
 
            for (j = tree->degree + 1; j > i; j--)
            {
                virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1];
            }
            virtualNode[i] = x;
            newLeaf->isLeaf = 1;
            cursor->count = (tree->degree + 1) / 2;
            newLeaf->count = tree->degree + 1 - (tree->degree + 1) / 2;
            cursor->child[cursor->count] = newLeaf;
            newLeaf->child[newLeaf->count] = cursor->child[tree->degree];
            cursor->child[tree->degree] = NULL;

            for (i = 0; i < cursor->count; i++)
            {
                cursor->keys[i] = virtualNode[i];
            }
            for (i = 0, j = cursor->count; i < newLeaf->count; i++, j++)
            {
                newLeaf->keys[i] = virtualNode[j];
            }
            if (cursor == tree->root)
            {
                struct TreeNode *newRoot = createNode(tree->degree);
             
                newRoot->keys[0] = newLeaf->keys[0];
                newRoot->child[0] = cursor;
                newRoot->child[1] = newLeaf;
                newRoot->isLeaf = 0;
                newRoot->count = 1;
                tree->root = newRoot;
            }
            else
            {
                insertInternal(tree, newLeaf->keys[0], parent, newLeaf);
            }
        }
    }
}

// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
void printNode(struct TreeNode *node) 
{
    if(node == NULL)
    {
        // When node is empty
        return;
    }
    else
    {
        int i  = 0;

        // iterate the node element
        while(i < node->count)
        {
            if(node->isLeaf==0)
            {
                // When node is not leaf
                printNode(node->child[i]);
            }
            else
            {
                // Print the left node value
                printf("  %d",node->keys[i]); 
            }
            i++;
        }
        if(node->isLeaf == 0)
        {
            printNode(node->child[i]);
        }
    }
}

int main(int argc, char const *argv[])
{
    // Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
    struct BPTree *tree = createTree(4);

    // Add node
    insert(tree,10);
    insert(tree,7);
    insert(tree,15);
    insert(tree,2);
    insert(tree,-3);
    insert(tree,12);
    insert(tree,35);
    insert(tree,14);

    // Print Tree elements
    printNode(tree->root);

    return 0;
}

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
/*
  Java Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
class TreeNode
{
	public boolean isLeaf;
	public int[] keys;
	public int count;
	public TreeNode[] child;
	public TreeNode(int degree)
	{
		this.isLeaf = false;
		this.count = 0;
		this.keys = new int[degree];
		this.child = new TreeNode[degree + 1];
		// Set initial child
		for (int i = 0; i <= degree; ++i)
		{
			this.child[i] = null;
		}
	}
}
// Define tree structure
public class BPTree
{
	public TreeNode root;
	public int degree;
	public BPTree(int degree)
	{
		this.degree = degree;
		this.root = null;
	}
	public TreeNode findParent(TreeNode cursor, TreeNode child)
	{
		TreeNode parent = null;
		if (cursor.isLeaf == true || (cursor.child[0]).isLeaf == true)
		{
			return null;
		}
		for (int i = 0; i < cursor.count + 1; i++)
		{
			if (cursor.child[i] == child)
			{
				parent = cursor;
				return parent;
			}
			else
			{
				parent = findParent(cursor.child[i], child);
				if (parent != null)
				{
					return parent;
				}
			}
		}
		return parent;
	}
	public void insertInternal(int x, TreeNode cursor, TreeNode child)
	{
		int i = 0;
		int j = 0;
		if (cursor.count < this.degree)
		{
			while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = cursor.count; j > i; j--)
			{
				cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
			}
			for (j = cursor.count + 1; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				cursor.child[j] = cursor.child[j - 1];
			}
			cursor.keys[i] = x;
			cursor.count++;
			cursor.child[i + 1] = child;
		}
		else
		{
			TreeNode newInternal = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			int[] virtualKey = new int[this.degree + 1];
			TreeNode[] virtualPtr = new TreeNode[this.degree + 2];
			for (i = 0; i < this.degree; i++)
			{
				virtualKey[i] = cursor.keys[i];
			}
			for (i = 0; i < this.degree + 1; i++)
			{
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor.child[i];
			}
			i = 0;
			while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < this.degree)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = this.degree + 1; j > i; j--)
			{
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1];
			}
			virtualKey[i] = x;
			for (j = this.degree + 2; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1];
			}
			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child;
			newInternal.isLeaf = false;
			cursor.count = (this.degree + 1) / 2;
			newInternal.count = this.degree - (this.degree + 1) / 2;
			for (i = 0, j = cursor.count + 1; i < newInternal.count; i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal.keys[i] = virtualKey[j];
			}
			for (i = 0, j = cursor.count + 1; i < newInternal.count + 1; i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal.child[i] = virtualPtr[j];
			}
			if (cursor == this.root)
			{
				this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				this.root.keys[0] = cursor.keys[cursor.count];
				this.root.child[0] = cursor;
				this.root.child[1] = newInternal;
				this.root.isLeaf = false;
				this.root.count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				insertInternal(cursor.keys[cursor.count], findParent(this.root, cursor), newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	public void insert(int x)
	{
		if (this.root == null)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			this.root.isLeaf = true;
			this.root.count = 1;
			this.root.keys[0] = x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			int i = 0;
			int j = 0;
			TreeNode cursor = this.root;
			TreeNode parent = null;
			// Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor.isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				parent = cursor;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor.count; i++)
				{
					if (x < cursor.keys[i])
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i];
						break;
					}
					if (i == cursor.count - 1)
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i + 1];
						break;
					}
				}
			}
			if (cursor.count < this.degree)
			{
				i = 0;
				while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = cursor.count; j > i; j--)
				{
					cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
				}
				cursor.keys[i] = x;
				cursor.count++;
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = cursor.child[cursor.count - 1];
				cursor.child[cursor.count - 1] = null;
			}
			else
			{
				TreeNode newLeaf = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				int[] virtualNode = new int[this.degree + 2];
				for (i = 0; i < this.degree; i++)
				{
					virtualNode[i] = cursor.keys[i];
				}
				i = 0;
				while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < this.degree)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = this.degree + 1; j > i; j--)
				{
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1];
				}
				virtualNode[i] = x;
				newLeaf.isLeaf = true;
				cursor.count = (this.degree + 1) / 2;
				newLeaf.count = this.degree + 1 - (this.degree + 1) / 2;
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = newLeaf;
				newLeaf.child[newLeaf.count] = cursor.child[this.degree];
				cursor.child[this.degree] = null;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor.count; i++)
				{
					cursor.keys[i] = virtualNode[i];
				}
				for (i = 0, j = cursor.count; i < newLeaf.count; i++, j++)
				{
					newLeaf.keys[i] = virtualNode[j];
				}
				if (cursor == this.root)
				{
					TreeNode newRoot = new TreeNode(this.degree);
					newRoot.keys[0] = newLeaf.keys[0];
					newRoot.child[0] = cursor;
					newRoot.child[1] = newLeaf;
					newRoot.isLeaf = false;
					newRoot.count = 1;
					this.root = newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					insertInternal(newLeaf.keys[0], parent, newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	public void printNode(TreeNode node)
	{
		if (node == null)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			int i = 0;
			// iterate the node element
			while (i < node.count)
			{
				if (node.isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					printNode(node.child[i]);
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					System.out.print("  " + node.keys[i]);
				}
				i++;
			}
			if (node.isLeaf == false)
			{
				printNode(node.child[i]);
			}
		}
	}
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
		BPTree tree = new BPTree(4);
		// Add node
		tree.insert(10);
		tree.insert(7);
		tree.insert(15);
		tree.insert(2);
		tree.insert(-3);
		tree.insert(12);
		tree.insert(35);
		tree.insert(14);
		// Print Tree elements
		tree.printNode(tree.root);
	}
}

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
// Include header file
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;
/*
  C++ Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
class TreeNode
{
	public: 
    bool isLeaf;
	int *keys;
	int count;
	TreeNode **child;
	TreeNode(int degree)
	{
		this->isLeaf = false;
		this->count = 0;
		this->keys = new int[degree];
		this->child = new TreeNode *[degree + 1];
		// Set initial child
		for (int i = 0; i <= degree; ++i)
		{
			this->child[i] = NULL;
		}
	}
	TreeNode()
	{
		this->count = 0;
	}
};
// Define tree structure
class BPTree
{
	public: TreeNode *root;
	int degree;
	BPTree(int degree)
	{
		this->degree = degree;
		this->root = NULL;
	}
	TreeNode *findParent(TreeNode *cursor, TreeNode *child)
	{
		TreeNode *parent = NULL;
		if (cursor->isLeaf == true || (cursor->child[0])->isLeaf == true)
		{
			return NULL;
		}
		for (int i = 0; i < cursor->count + 1; i++)
		{
			if (cursor->child[i] == child)
			{
				parent = cursor;
				return parent;
			}
			else
			{
				parent = this->findParent(cursor->child[i], child);
				if (parent != NULL)
				{
					return parent;
				}
			}
		}
		return parent;
	}
	void insertInternal(int x, TreeNode *cursor, TreeNode *child)
	{
		int i = 0;
		int j = 0;
		if (cursor->count < this->degree)
		{
			while (x > cursor->keys[i] && i < cursor->count)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = cursor->count; j > i; j--)
			{
				cursor->keys[j] = cursor->keys[j - 1];
			}
			for (j = cursor->count + 1; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				cursor->child[j] = cursor->child[j - 1];
			}
			cursor->keys[i] = x;
			cursor->count++;
			cursor->child[i + 1] = child;
		}
		else
		{
			TreeNode *newInternal = new TreeNode(this->degree);
			int *virtualKey = new int[this->degree + 1];
			TreeNode **virtualPtr = new TreeNode *[this->degree + 2];
			for (i = 0; i < this->degree; i++)
			{
				virtualKey[i] = cursor->keys[i];
			}
			for (i = 0; i < this->degree + 1; i++)
			{
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor->child[i];
			}
			i = 0;
			while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < this->degree)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = this->degree + 1; j > i; j--)
			{
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1];
			}
			virtualKey[i] = x;
			for (j = this->degree + 2; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1];
			}
			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child;
			newInternal->isLeaf = false;
			cursor->count = (this->degree + 1) / 2;
			newInternal->count = this->degree - (this->degree + 1) / 2;
			for (i = 0, j = cursor->count + 1; i < newInternal->count; 
                 i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal->keys[i] = virtualKey[j];
			}
			for (i = 0, j = cursor->count + 1; i < newInternal->count + 1; 
                 i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal->child[i] = virtualPtr[j];
			}
			if (cursor == this->root)
			{
				this->root = new TreeNode(this->degree);
				this->root->keys[0] = cursor->keys[cursor->count];
				this->root->child[0] = cursor;
				this->root->child[1] = newInternal;
				this->root->isLeaf = false;
				this->root->count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				this->insertInternal(cursor->keys[cursor->count], 
                                     this->findParent(this->root, cursor),
                                     newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	void insert(int x)
	{
		if (this->root == NULL)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			this->root = new TreeNode(this->degree);
			this->root->isLeaf = true;
			this->root->count = 1;
			this->root->keys[0] = x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			int i = 0;
			int j = 0;
			TreeNode *cursor = this->root;
			TreeNode *parent = NULL;
			// Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor->isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				parent = cursor;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor->count; i++)
				{
					if (x < cursor->keys[i])
					{
						cursor = cursor->child[i];
						break;
					}
					if (i == cursor->count - 1)
					{
						cursor = cursor->child[i + 1];
						break;
					}
				}
			}
			if (cursor->count < this->degree)
			{
				i = 0;
				while (x > cursor->keys[i] && i < cursor->count)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = cursor->count; j > i; j--)
				{
					cursor->keys[j] = cursor->keys[j - 1];
				}
				cursor->keys[i] = x;
				cursor->count++;
				cursor->child[cursor->count] = cursor->child[cursor->count - 1];
				cursor->child[cursor->count - 1] = NULL;
			}
			else
			{
				TreeNode *newLeaf = new TreeNode(this->degree);
				int *virtualNode = new int[this->degree + 2];
				for (i = 0; i < this->degree; i++)
				{
					virtualNode[i] = cursor->keys[i];
				}
				i = 0;
				while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < this->degree)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = this->degree + 1; j > i; j--)
				{
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1];
				}
				virtualNode[i] = x;
				newLeaf->isLeaf = true;
				cursor->count = (this->degree + 1) / 2;
				newLeaf->count = this->degree + 1 - (this->degree + 1) / 2;
				cursor->child[cursor->count] = newLeaf;
				newLeaf->child[newLeaf->count] = cursor->child[this->degree];
				cursor->child[this->degree] = NULL;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor->count; i++)
				{
					cursor->keys[i] = virtualNode[i];
				}
				for (i = 0, j = cursor->count; i < newLeaf->count; i++, j++)
				{
					newLeaf->keys[i] = virtualNode[j];
				}
				if (cursor == this->root)
				{
					TreeNode *newRoot = new TreeNode(this->degree);
					newRoot->keys[0] = newLeaf->keys[0];
					newRoot->child[0] = cursor;
					newRoot->child[1] = newLeaf;
					newRoot->isLeaf = false;
					newRoot->count = 1;
					this->root = newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					this->insertInternal(newLeaf->keys[0], parent, newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	void printNode(TreeNode *node)
	{
		if (node == NULL)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			int i = 0;
			// iterate the node element
			while (i < node->count)
			{
				if (node->isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					this->printNode(node->child[i]);
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					cout << "  " << node->keys[i];
				}
				i++;
			}
			if (node->isLeaf == false)
			{
				this->printNode(node->child[i]);
			}
		}
	}
};
int main()
{
	// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
	BPTree *tree = new BPTree(4);
	// Add node
	tree->insert(10);
	tree->insert(7);
	tree->insert(15);
	tree->insert(2);
	tree->insert(-3);
	tree->insert(12);
	tree->insert(35);
	tree->insert(14);
	// Print Tree elements
	tree->printNode(tree->root);
	return 0;
}

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
// Include namespace system
using System;
/*
  Csharp Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
public class TreeNode
{
	public Boolean isLeaf;
	public int[] keys;
	public int count;
	public TreeNode[] child;
	public TreeNode(int degree)
	{
		this.isLeaf = false;
		this.count = 0;
		this.keys = new int[degree];
		this.child = new TreeNode[degree + 1];
		// Set initial child
		for (int i = 0; i <= degree; ++i)
		{
			this.child[i] = null;
		}
	}
}
// Define tree structure
public class BPTree
{
	public TreeNode root;
	public int degree;
	public BPTree(int degree)
	{
		this.degree = degree;
		this.root = null;
	}
	public TreeNode findParent(TreeNode cursor, TreeNode child)
	{
		TreeNode parent = null;
		if (cursor.isLeaf == true || (cursor.child[0]).isLeaf == true)
		{
			return null;
		}
		for (int i = 0; i < cursor.count + 1; i++)
		{
			if (cursor.child[i] == child)
			{
				parent = cursor;
				return parent;
			}
			else
			{
				parent = this.findParent(cursor.child[i], child);
				if (parent != null)
				{
					return parent;
				}
			}
		}
		return parent;
	}
	public void insertInternal(int x, TreeNode cursor, TreeNode child)
	{
		int i = 0;
		int j = 0;
		if (cursor.count < this.degree)
		{
			while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = cursor.count; j > i; j--)
			{
				cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
			}
			for (j = cursor.count + 1; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				cursor.child[j] = cursor.child[j - 1];
			}
			cursor.keys[i] = x;
			cursor.count++;
			cursor.child[i + 1] = child;
		}
		else
		{
			TreeNode newInternal = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			int[] virtualKey = new int[this.degree + 1];
			TreeNode[] virtualPtr = new TreeNode[this.degree + 2];
			for (i = 0; i < this.degree; i++)
			{
				virtualKey[i] = cursor.keys[i];
			}
			for (i = 0; i < this.degree + 1; i++)
			{
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor.child[i];
			}
			i = 0;
			while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < this.degree)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = this.degree + 1; j > i; j--)
			{
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1];
			}
			virtualKey[i] = x;
			for (j = this.degree + 2; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1];
			}
			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child;
			newInternal.isLeaf = false;
			cursor.count = (this.degree + 1) / 2;
			newInternal.count = this.degree - (this.degree + 1) / 2;
			for (i = 0, j = cursor.count + 1; i < newInternal.count; i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal.keys[i] = virtualKey[j];
			}
			for (i = 0, j = cursor.count + 1; i < newInternal.count + 1; i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal.child[i] = virtualPtr[j];
			}
			if (cursor == this.root)
			{
				this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				this.root.keys[0] = cursor.keys[cursor.count];
				this.root.child[0] = cursor;
				this.root.child[1] = newInternal;
				this.root.isLeaf = false;
				this.root.count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				this.insertInternal(cursor.keys[cursor.count], 
                                    this.findParent(this.root, cursor),
                                    newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	public void insert(int x)
	{
		if (this.root == null)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			this.root.isLeaf = true;
			this.root.count = 1;
			this.root.keys[0] = x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			int i = 0;
			int j = 0;
			TreeNode cursor = this.root;
			TreeNode parent = null;
			// Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor.isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				parent = cursor;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor.count; i++)
				{
					if (x < cursor.keys[i])
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i];
						break;
					}
					if (i == cursor.count - 1)
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i + 1];
						break;
					}
				}
			}
			if (cursor.count < this.degree)
			{
				i = 0;
				while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = cursor.count; j > i; j--)
				{
					cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
				}
				cursor.keys[i] = x;
				cursor.count++;
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = cursor.child[cursor.count - 1];
				cursor.child[cursor.count - 1] = null;
			}
			else
			{
				TreeNode newLeaf = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				int[] virtualNode = new int[this.degree + 2];
				for (i = 0; i < this.degree; i++)
				{
					virtualNode[i] = cursor.keys[i];
				}
				i = 0;
				while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < this.degree)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = this.degree + 1; j > i; j--)
				{
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1];
				}
				virtualNode[i] = x;
				newLeaf.isLeaf = true;
				cursor.count = (this.degree + 1) / 2;
				newLeaf.count = this.degree + 1 - (this.degree + 1) / 2;
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = newLeaf;
				newLeaf.child[newLeaf.count] = cursor.child[this.degree];
				cursor.child[this.degree] = null;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor.count; i++)
				{
					cursor.keys[i] = virtualNode[i];
				}
				for (i = 0, j = cursor.count; i < newLeaf.count; i++, j++)
				{
					newLeaf.keys[i] = virtualNode[j];
				}
				if (cursor == this.root)
				{
					TreeNode newRoot = new TreeNode(this.degree);
					newRoot.keys[0] = newLeaf.keys[0];
					newRoot.child[0] = cursor;
					newRoot.child[1] = newLeaf;
					newRoot.isLeaf = false;
					newRoot.count = 1;
					this.root = newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					this.insertInternal(newLeaf.keys[0], parent, newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	public void printNode(TreeNode node)
	{
		if (node == null)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			int i = 0;
			// iterate the node element
			while (i < node.count)
			{
				if (node.isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					this.printNode(node.child[i]);
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					Console.Write("  " + node.keys[i]);
				}
				i++;
			}
			if (node.isLeaf == false)
			{
				this.printNode(node.child[i]);
			}
		}
	}
	public static void Main(String[] args)
	{
		// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
		BPTree tree = new BPTree(4);
		// Add node
		tree.insert(10);
		tree.insert(7);
		tree.insert(15);
		tree.insert(2);
		tree.insert(-3);
		tree.insert(12);
		tree.insert(35);
		tree.insert(14);
		// Print Tree elements
		tree.printNode(tree.root);
	}
}

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
<?php
/*
  Php Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
class TreeNode
{
	public $isLeaf;
	public $keys;
	public $count;
	public $child;
	public function __construct($degree)
	{
		$this->isLeaf = false;
		$this->count = 0;
		$this->keys = array_fill(0, $degree, 0);
		$this->child = array_fill(0, $degree + 1, NULL);
		// Set initial child
		for ($i = 0; $i <= $degree; ++$i)
		{
			$this->child[$i] = NULL;
		}
	}
}
// Define tree structure
class BPTree
{
	public $root;
	public $degree;
	public function __construct($degree)
	{
		$this->degree = $degree;
		$this->root = NULL;
	}
	public function findParent($cursor, $child)
	{
		$parent = NULL;
		if ($cursor->isLeaf == true || ($cursor->child[0]).isLeaf == true)
		{
			return NULL;
		}
		for ($i = 0; $i < $cursor->count + 1; $i++)
		{
			if ($cursor->child[$i] == $child)
			{
				$parent = $cursor;
				return $parent;
			}
			else
			{
				$parent = $this->findParent($cursor->child[$i], $child);
				if ($parent != NULL)
				{
					return $parent;
				}
			}
		}
		return $parent;
	}
	public function insertInternal($x, $cursor, $child)
	{
		$i = 0;
		$j = 0;
		if ($cursor->count < $this->degree)
		{
			while ($x > $cursor->keys[$i] && $i < $cursor->count)
			{
				$i++;
			}
			for ($j = $cursor->count; $j > $i; $j--)
			{
				$cursor->keys[$j] = $cursor->keys[$j - 1];
			}
			for ($j = $cursor->count + 1; $j > $i + 1; $j--)
			{
				$cursor->child[$j] = $cursor->child[$j - 1];
			}
			$cursor->keys[$i] = $x;
			$cursor->count++;
			$cursor->child[$i + 1] = $child;
		}
		else
		{
			$newInternal = new TreeNode($this->degree);
			$virtualKey = array_fill(0, $this->degree + 1, 0);
			$virtualPtr = array_fill(0, $this->degree + 2, NULL);
			for ($i = 0; $i < $this->degree; $i++)
			{
				$virtualKey[$i] = $cursor->keys[$i];
			}
			for ($i = 0; $i < $this->degree + 1; $i++)
			{
				$virtualPtr[$i] = $cursor->child[$i];
			}
			$i = 0;
			while ($x > $virtualKey[$i] && $i < $this->degree)
			{
				$i++;
			}
			for ($j = $this->degree + 1; $j > $i; $j--)
			{
				$virtualKey[$j] = $virtualKey[$j - 1];
			}
			$virtualKey[$i] = $x;
			for ($j = $this->degree + 2; $j > $i + 1; $j--)
			{
				$virtualPtr[$j] = $virtualPtr[$j - 1];
			}
			$virtualPtr[$i + 1] = $child;
			$newInternal->isLeaf = false;
			$cursor->count = (int)(($this->degree + 1) / 2);
			$newInternal->count = $this->degree - (int)(($this->degree + 1) / 2);
			for ($i = 0, $j = $cursor->count + 1; $i < $newInternal->count;
                 $i++, $j++)
			{
				$newInternal->keys[$i] = $virtualKey[$j];
			}
			for ($i = 0, $j = $cursor->count + 1; $i < $newInternal->count + 1;
                 $i++, $j++)
			{
				$newInternal->child[$i] = $virtualPtr[$j];
			}
			if ($cursor == $this->root)
			{
				$this->root = new TreeNode($this->degree);
				$this->root->keys[0] = $cursor->keys[$cursor->count];
				$this->root->child[0] = $cursor;
				$this->root->child[1] = $newInternal;
				$this->root->isLeaf = false;
				$this->root->count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				$this->insertInternal($cursor->keys[$cursor->count], 
                                      $this->findParent($this->root, $cursor),
                                      $newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	public function insert($x)
	{
		if ($this->root == NULL)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			$this->root = new TreeNode($this->degree);
			$this->root->isLeaf = true;
			$this->root->count = 1;
			$this->root->keys[0] = $x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			$i = 0;
			$j = 0;
			$cursor = $this->root;
			$parent = NULL;
			// Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while ($cursor->isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				$parent = $cursor;
				for ($i = 0; $i < $cursor->count; $i++)
				{
					if ($x < $cursor->keys[$i])
					{
						$cursor = $cursor->child[$i];
						break;
					}
					if ($i == $cursor->count - 1)
					{
						$cursor = $cursor->child[$i + 1];
						break;
					}
				}
			}
			if ($cursor->count < $this->degree)
			{
				$i = 0;
				while ($x > $cursor->keys[$i] && $i < $cursor->count)
				{
					$i++;
				}
				for ($j = $cursor->count; $j > $i; $j--)
				{
					$cursor->keys[$j] = $cursor->keys[$j - 1];
				}
				$cursor->keys[$i] = $x;
				$cursor->count++;
				$cursor->child[$cursor->count] = $cursor->child[$cursor->count - 1];
				$cursor->child[$cursor->count - 1] = NULL;
			}
			else
			{
				$newLeaf = new TreeNode($this->degree);
				$virtualNode = array_fill(0, $this->degree + 2, 0);
				for ($i = 0; $i < $this->degree; $i++)
				{
					$virtualNode[$i] = $cursor->keys[$i];
				}
				$i = 0;
				while ($x > $virtualNode[$i] && $i < $this->degree)
				{
					$i++;
				}
				for ($j = $this->degree + 1; $j > $i; $j--)
				{
					$virtualNode[$j] = $virtualNode[$j - 1];
				}
				$virtualNode[$i] = $x;
				$newLeaf->isLeaf = true;
				$cursor->count = (int)(($this->degree + 1) / 2);
				$newLeaf->count = $this->degree + 1 - (int)(($this->degree + 1) / 2);
				$cursor->child[$cursor->count] = $newLeaf;
				$newLeaf->child[$newLeaf->count] = $cursor->child[$this->degree];
				$cursor->child[$this->degree] = NULL;
				for ($i = 0; $i < $cursor->count; $i++)
				{
					$cursor->keys[$i] = $virtualNode[$i];
				}
				for ($i = 0, $j = $cursor->count; $i < $newLeaf->count; 
                     $i++, $j++)
				{
					$newLeaf->keys[$i] = $virtualNode[$j];
				}
				if ($cursor == $this->root)
				{
					$newRoot = new TreeNode($this->degree);
					$newRoot->keys[0] = $newLeaf->keys[0];
					$newRoot->child[0] = $cursor;
					$newRoot->child[1] = $newLeaf;
					$newRoot->isLeaf = false;
					$newRoot->count = 1;
					$this->root = $newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					$this->insertInternal($newLeaf->keys[0], $parent, $newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	public function printNode($node)
	{
		if ($node == NULL)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			$i = 0;
			// iterate the node element
			while ($i < $node->count)
			{
				if ($node->isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					$this->printNode($node->child[$i]);
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					echo "  ". $node->keys[$i];
				}
				$i++;
			}
			if ($node->isLeaf == false)
			{
				$this->printNode($node->child[$i]);
			}
		}
	}
}

function main()
{
	// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
	$tree = new BPTree(4);
	// Add node
	$tree->insert(10);
	$tree->insert(7);
	$tree->insert(15);
	$tree->insert(2);
	$tree->insert(-3);
	$tree->insert(12);
	$tree->insert(35);
	$tree->insert(14);
	// Print Tree elements
	$tree->printNode($tree->root);
}
main();

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
/*
  Node JS Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
class TreeNode
{
	constructor(degree)
	{
		this.isLeaf = false;
		this.count = 0;
		this.keys = Array(degree).fill(0);
		this.child = Array(degree + 1).fill(null);
		// Set initial child
		for (var i = 0; i <= degree; ++i)
		{
			this.child[i] = null;
		}
	}
}
// Define tree structure
class BPTree
{
	constructor(degree)
	{
		this.degree = degree;
		this.root = null;
	}
	findParent(cursor, child)
	{
		var parent = null;
		if (cursor.isLeaf == true || (cursor.child[0]).isLeaf == true)
		{
			return null;
		}
		for (var i = 0; i < cursor.count + 1; i++)
		{
			if (cursor.child[i] == child)
			{
				parent = cursor;
				return parent;
			}
			else
			{
				parent = this.findParent(cursor.child[i], child);
				if (parent != null)
				{
					return parent;
				}
			}
		}
		return parent;
	}
	insertInternal(x, cursor, child)
	{
		var i = 0;
		var j = 0;
		if (cursor.count < this.degree)
		{
			while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = cursor.count; j > i; j--)
			{
				cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
			}
			for (j = cursor.count + 1; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				cursor.child[j] = cursor.child[j - 1];
			}
			cursor.keys[i] = x;
			cursor.count++;
			cursor.child[i + 1] = child;
		}
		else
		{
			var newInternal = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			var virtualKey = Array(this.degree + 1).fill(0);
			var virtualPtr = Array(this.degree + 2).fill(null);
			for (i = 0; i < this.degree; i++)
			{
				virtualKey[i] = cursor.keys[i];
			}
			for (i = 0; i < this.degree + 1; i++)
			{
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor.child[i];
			}
			i = 0;
			while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < this.degree)
			{
				i++;
			}
			for (j = this.degree + 1; j > i; j--)
			{
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1];
			}
			virtualKey[i] = x;
			for (j = this.degree + 2; j > i + 1; j--)
			{
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1];
			}
			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child;
			newInternal.isLeaf = false;
			cursor.count = parseInt((this.degree + 1) / 2);
			newInternal.count = this.degree - parseInt((this.degree + 1) / 2);
			for (i = 0, j = cursor.count + 1; i < newInternal.count; i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal.keys[i] = virtualKey[j];
			}
			for (i = 0, j = cursor.count + 1; i < newInternal.count + 1; i++, j++)
			{
				newInternal.child[i] = virtualPtr[j];
			}
			if (cursor == this.root)
			{
				this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				this.root.keys[0] = cursor.keys[cursor.count];
				this.root.child[0] = cursor;
				this.root.child[1] = newInternal;
				this.root.isLeaf = false;
				this.root.count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				this.insertInternal(cursor.keys[cursor.count], this.findParent(this.root, cursor), newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	insert(x)
	{
		if (this.root == null)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			this.root.isLeaf = true;
			this.root.count = 1;
			this.root.keys[0] = x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			var i = 0;
			var j = 0;
			var cursor = this.root;
			var parent = null;
			// Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor.isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				parent = cursor;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor.count; i++)
				{
					if (x < cursor.keys[i])
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i];
						break;
					}
					if (i == cursor.count - 1)
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i + 1];
						break;
					}
				}
			}
			if (cursor.count < this.degree)
			{
				i = 0;
				while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = cursor.count; j > i; j--)
				{
					cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
				}
				cursor.keys[i] = x;
				cursor.count++;
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = cursor.child[cursor.count - 1];
				cursor.child[cursor.count - 1] = null;
			}
			else
			{
				var newLeaf = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				var virtualNode = Array(this.degree + 2).fill(0);
				for (i = 0; i < this.degree; i++)
				{
					virtualNode[i] = cursor.keys[i];
				}
				i = 0;
				while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < this.degree)
				{
					i++;
				}
				for (j = this.degree + 1; j > i; j--)
				{
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1];
				}
				virtualNode[i] = x;
				newLeaf.isLeaf = true;
				cursor.count = parseInt((this.degree + 1) / 2);
				newLeaf.count = this.degree + 1 - parseInt((this.degree + 1) / 2);
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = newLeaf;
				newLeaf.child[newLeaf.count] = cursor.child[this.degree];
				cursor.child[this.degree] = null;
				for (i = 0; i < cursor.count; i++)
				{
					cursor.keys[i] = virtualNode[i];
				}
				for (i = 0, j = cursor.count; i < newLeaf.count; i++, j++)
				{
					newLeaf.keys[i] = virtualNode[j];
				}
				if (cursor == this.root)
				{
					var newRoot = new TreeNode(this.degree);
					newRoot.keys[0] = newLeaf.keys[0];
					newRoot.child[0] = cursor;
					newRoot.child[1] = newLeaf;
					newRoot.isLeaf = false;
					newRoot.count = 1;
					this.root = newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					this.insertInternal(newLeaf.keys[0], parent, newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	printNode(node)
	{
		if (node == null)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			var i = 0;
			// iterate the node element
			while (i < node.count)
			{
				if (node.isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					this.printNode(node.child[i]);
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					process.stdout.write("  " + node.keys[i]);
				}
				i++;
			}
			if (node.isLeaf == false)
			{
				this.printNode(node.child[i]);
			}
		}
	}
}

function main()
{
	// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
	var tree = new BPTree(4);
	// Add node
	tree.insert(10);
	tree.insert(7);
	tree.insert(15);
	tree.insert(2);
	tree.insert(-3);
	tree.insert(12);
	tree.insert(35);
	tree.insert(14);
	// Print Tree elements
	tree.printNode(tree.root);
}
main();

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
# Python 3 Program
# Check if two numbers are co - prime or not
# Define tree node
class TreeNode :
	def __init__(self, degree) :
		self.isLeaf = False
		self.count = 0
		self.keys = [0] * (degree)
		self.child = [None] * (degree + 1)
		# Set initial child
		i = 0
		while (i <= degree) :
			self.child[i] = None
			i += 1
		
	

# Define tree structure
class BPTree :
	def __init__(self, degree) :
		self.degree = degree
		self.root = None
	
	def findParent(self, cursor, child) :
		parent = None
		if (cursor.isLeaf == True or (cursor.child[0]).isLeaf == True) :
			return None
		
		i = 0
		while (i < cursor.count + 1) :
			if (cursor.child[i] == child) :
				parent = cursor
				return parent
			else :
				parent = self.findParent(cursor.child[i], child)
				if (parent != None) :
					return parent
				
			
			i += 1
		
		return parent
	
	def insertInternal(self, x, cursor, child) :
		i = 0
		j = 0
		if (cursor.count < self.degree) :
			while (x > cursor.keys[i] and i < cursor.count) :
				i += 1
			
			j = cursor.count
			while (j > i) :
				cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			
			j = cursor.count + 1
			while (j > i + 1) :
				cursor.child[j] = cursor.child[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			
			cursor.keys[i] = x
			cursor.count += 1
			cursor.child[i + 1] = child
		else :
			newInternal = TreeNode(self.degree)
			virtualKey = [0] * (self.degree + 1)
			virtualPtr = [None] * (self.degree + 2)
			i = 0
			while (i < self.degree) :
				virtualKey[i] = cursor.keys[i]
				i += 1
			
			i = 0
			while (i < self.degree + 1) :
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor.child[i]
				i += 1
			
			i = 0
			while (x > virtualKey[i] and i < self.degree) :
				i += 1
			
			j = self.degree + 1
			while (j > i) :
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			
			virtualKey[i] = x
			j = self.degree + 2
			while (j > i + 1) :
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			
			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child
			newInternal.isLeaf = False
			cursor.count = int((self.degree + 1) / 2)
			newInternal.count = self.degree - int((self.degree + 1) / 2)
			i = 0
			j = cursor.count + 1
			while (i < newInternal.count) :
				newInternal.keys[i] = virtualKey[j]
				i += 1
				j += 1
			
			i = 0
			j = cursor.count + 1
			while (i < newInternal.count + 1) :
				newInternal.child[i] = virtualPtr[j]
				i += 1
				j += 1
			
			if (cursor == self.root) :
				self.root = TreeNode(self.degree)
				self.root.keys[0] = cursor.keys[cursor.count]
				self.root.child[0] = cursor
				self.root.child[1] = newInternal
				self.root.isLeaf = False
				self.root.count = 1
			else :
				self.insertInternal(cursor.keys[cursor.count], 
                                    self.findParent(self.root, cursor),
                                    newInternal)
			
		
	
	# Handles the request to add new node in B + tree
	def insert(self, x) :
		if (self.root == None) :
			# Add first node of tree
			self.root = TreeNode(self.degree)
			self.root.isLeaf = True
			self.root.count = 1
			self.root.keys[0] = x
		else :
			i = 0
			j = 0
			cursor = self.root
			parent = None
			# Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor.isLeaf == False) :
				# Get the current node
				parent = cursor
				i = 0
				while (i < cursor.count) :
					if (x < cursor.keys[i]) :
						cursor = cursor.child[i]
						break
					
					if (i == cursor.count - 1) :
						cursor = cursor.child[i + 1]
						break
					
					i += 1
				
			
			if (cursor.count < self.degree) :
				i = 0
				while (x > cursor.keys[i] and i < cursor.count) :
					i += 1
				
				j = cursor.count
				while (j > i) :
					cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1]
					j -= 1
				
				cursor.keys[i] = x
				cursor.count += 1
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = cursor.child[cursor.count - 1]
				cursor.child[cursor.count - 1] = None
			else :
				newLeaf = TreeNode(self.degree)
				virtualNode = [0] * (self.degree + 2)
				i = 0
				while (i < self.degree) :
					virtualNode[i] = cursor.keys[i]
					i += 1
				
				i = 0
				while (x > virtualNode[i] and i < self.degree) :
					i += 1
				
				j = self.degree + 1
				while (j > i) :
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1]
					j -= 1
				
				virtualNode[i] = x
				newLeaf.isLeaf = True
				cursor.count = int((self.degree + 1) / 2)
				newLeaf.count = self.degree + 1 - int((self.degree + 1) / 2)
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = newLeaf
				newLeaf.child[newLeaf.count] = cursor.child[self.degree]
				cursor.child[self.degree] = None
				i = 0
				while (i < cursor.count) :
					cursor.keys[i] = virtualNode[i]
					i += 1
				
				i = 0
				j = cursor.count
				while (i < newLeaf.count) :
					newLeaf.keys[i] = virtualNode[j]
					i += 1
					j += 1
				
				if (cursor == self.root) :
					newRoot = TreeNode(self.degree)
					newRoot.keys[0] = newLeaf.keys[0]
					newRoot.child[0] = cursor
					newRoot.child[1] = newLeaf
					newRoot.isLeaf = False
					newRoot.count = 1
					self.root = newRoot
				else :
					self.insertInternal(newLeaf.keys[0], parent, newLeaf)
				
			
		
	
	# Print the elements of B + tree elements
	def printNode(self, node) :
		if (node == None) :
			# When node is empty
			return
		else :
			i = 0
			# iterate the node element
			while (i < node.count) :
				if (node.isLeaf == False) :
					# When node is not leaf
					self.printNode(node.child[i])
				else :
					# Print the left node value
					print("  ", node.keys[i], end = "")
				
				i += 1
			
			if (node.isLeaf == False) :
				self.printNode(node.child[i])
			
		
	

def main() :
	tree = BPTree(4)
	# Add node
	tree.insert(10)
	tree.insert(7)
	tree.insert(15)
	tree.insert(2)
	tree.insert(-3)
	tree.insert(12)
	tree.insert(35)
	tree.insert(14)
	# Print Tree elements
	tree.printNode(tree.root)

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

input

   -3   2   7   10   12   14   15   35
# Ruby Program
# Check if two numbers are co - prime or not
# Define tree node
class TreeNode 
	# Define the accessor and reader of class TreeNode
	attr_reader :isLeaf, :keys, :count, :child
	attr_accessor :isLeaf, :keys, :count, :child
	def initialize(degree) 
		self.isLeaf = false
		self.count = 0
		self.keys = Array.new(degree) {0}
		self.child = Array.new(degree + 1) {nil}
		# Set initial child
		i = 0
		while (i <= degree) 
			self.child[i] = nil
			i += 1
		end

	end

end

# Define tree structure
class BPTree 
	# Define the accessor and reader of class BPTree
	attr_reader :root, :degree
	attr_accessor :root, :degree
	def initialize(degree) 
		self.degree = degree
		self.root = nil
	end

	def findParent(cursor, child) 
		parent = nil
		if (cursor.isLeaf == true || (cursor.child[0]).isLeaf == true) 
			return nil
		end

		i = 0
		while (i < cursor.count + 1) 
			if (cursor.child[i] == child) 
				parent = cursor
				return parent
			else 
				parent = self.findParent(cursor.child[i], child)
				if (parent != nil) 
					return parent
				end

			end

			i += 1
		end

		return parent
	end

	def insertInternal(x, cursor, child) 
		i = 0
		j = 0
		if (cursor.count < self.degree) 
			while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count) 
				i += 1
			end

			j = cursor.count
			while (j > i) 
				cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			end

			j = cursor.count + 1
			while (j > i + 1) 
				cursor.child[j] = cursor.child[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			end

			cursor.keys[i] = x
			cursor.count += 1
			cursor.child[i + 1] = child
		else 
			newInternal = TreeNode.new(self.degree)
			virtualKey = Array.new(self.degree + 1) {0}
			virtualPtr = Array.new(self.degree + 2) {nil}
			i = 0
			while (i < self.degree) 
				virtualKey[i] = cursor.keys[i]
				i += 1
			end

			i = 0
			while (i < self.degree + 1) 
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor.child[i]
				i += 1
			end

			i = 0
			while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < self.degree) 
				i += 1
			end

			j = self.degree + 1
			while (j > i) 
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			end

			virtualKey[i] = x
			j = self.degree + 2
			while (j > i + 1) 
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1]
				j -= 1
			end

			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child
			newInternal.isLeaf = false
			cursor.count = (self.degree + 1) / 2
			newInternal.count = self.degree - (self.degree + 1) / 2
			i = 0, j = cursor.count + 1
			while (i < newInternal.count) 
				newInternal.keys[i] = virtualKey[j]
				i += 1
				j += 1
			end

			i = 0
			j = cursor.count + 1
			while (i < newInternal.count + 1) 
				newInternal.child[i] = virtualPtr[j]
				i += 1
				j += 1
			end

			if (cursor == self.root) 
				self.root = TreeNode.new(self.degree)
				self.root.keys[0] = cursor.keys[cursor.count]
				self.root.child[0] = cursor
				self.root.child[1] = newInternal
				self.root.isLeaf = false
				self.root.count = 1
			else 
				self.insertInternal(cursor.keys[cursor.count],
                                    self.findParent(self.root, cursor), 
                                    newInternal)
			end

		end

	end

	# Handles the request to add new node in B + tree
	def insert(x) 
		if (self.root == nil) 
			# Add first node of tree
			self.root = TreeNode.new(self.degree)
			self.root.isLeaf = true
			self.root.count = 1
			self.root.keys[0] = x
		else 
			# Loop controlling variables
			i = 0
			j = 0
			cursor = self.root
			parent = nil
			# Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor.isLeaf == false) 
				# Get the current node
				parent = cursor
				i = 0
				while (i < cursor.count) 
					if (x < cursor.keys[i]) 
						cursor = cursor.child[i]
						break
					end

					if (i == cursor.count - 1) 
						cursor = cursor.child[i + 1]
						break
					end

					i += 1
				end

			end

			if (cursor.count < self.degree) 
				i = 0
				while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count) 
					i += 1
				end

				j = cursor.count
				while (j > i) 
					cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1]
					j -= 1
				end

				cursor.keys[i] = x
				cursor.count += 1
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = cursor.child[cursor.count - 1]
				cursor.child[cursor.count - 1] = nil
			else 
				newLeaf = TreeNode.new(self.degree)
				virtualNode = Array.new(self.degree + 2) {0}
				i = 0
				while (i < self.degree) 
					virtualNode[i] = cursor.keys[i]
					i += 1
				end

				i = 0
				while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < self.degree) 
					i += 1
				end

				j = self.degree + 1
				while (j > i) 
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1]
					j -= 1
				end

				virtualNode[i] = x
				newLeaf.isLeaf = true
				cursor.count = (self.degree + 1) / 2
				newLeaf.count = self.degree + 1 - (self.degree + 1) / 2
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = newLeaf
				newLeaf.child[newLeaf.count] = cursor.child[self.degree]
				cursor.child[self.degree] = nil
				i = 0
				while (i < cursor.count) 
					cursor.keys[i] = virtualNode[i]
					i += 1
				end

				i = 0
				j = cursor.count
				while (i < newLeaf.count) 
					newLeaf.keys[i] = virtualNode[j]
					i += 1
					j += 1
				end

				if (cursor == self.root) 
					newRoot = TreeNode.new(self.degree)
					newRoot.keys[0] = newLeaf.keys[0]
					newRoot.child[0] = cursor
					newRoot.child[1] = newLeaf
					newRoot.isLeaf = false
					newRoot.count = 1
					self.root = newRoot
				else 
					self.insertInternal(newLeaf.keys[0], parent, newLeaf)
				end

			end

		end

	end

	# Print the elements of B + tree elements
	def printNode(node) 
		if (node == nil) 
			# When node is empty
			return
		else 
			i = 0
			# iterate the node element
			while (i < node.count) 
				if (node.isLeaf == false) 
					# When node is not leaf
					self.printNode(node.child[i])
				else 
					# Print the left node value
					print("  ", node.keys[i])
				end

				i += 1
			end

			if (node.isLeaf == false) 
				self.printNode(node.child[i])
			end

		end

	end

end

def main() 
	# Create a new b + tree with degree 4
	tree = BPTree.new(4)
	# Add node
	tree.insert(10)
	tree.insert(7)
	tree.insert(15)
	tree.insert(2)
	tree.insert(-3)
	tree.insert(12)
	tree.insert(35)
	tree.insert(14)
	# Print Tree elements
	tree.printNode(tree.root)
end

main()

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
/*
  Scala Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
class TreeNode(var isLeaf: Boolean , var keys: Array[Int] , var count: Int , var child: Array[TreeNode])
{
	def this(degree: Int)
	{
      	this(false,
             Array.fill[Int](degree)(0),
             0,
             Array.fill[TreeNode](degree + 1)(null)
        );
	}
}
// Define tree structure
class BPTree(var root: TreeNode , var degree: Int)
{
	def this(degree: Int)
	{
		this(null,degree)
	}
	def findParent(cursor: TreeNode, child: TreeNode): TreeNode = {
		var parent: TreeNode = null;
		if (cursor.isLeaf == true || (cursor.child(0)).isLeaf == true)
		{
			return null;
		}
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < cursor.count + 1)
		{
			if (cursor.child(i) == child)
			{
				parent = cursor;
				return parent;
			}
			else
			{
				parent = findParent(cursor.child(i), child);
				if (parent != null)
				{
					return parent;
				}
			}
			i += 1;
		}
		return parent;
	}
	def insertInternal(x: Int, cursor: TreeNode, child: TreeNode): Unit = {
		var i: Int = 0;
		var j: Int = 0;
		if (cursor.count < this.degree)
		{
			while (x > cursor.keys(i) && i < cursor.count)
			{
				i += 1;
			}
			j = cursor.count;
			while (j > i)
			{
				cursor.keys(j) = cursor.keys(j - 1);
				j -= 1
			}
			j = cursor.count + 1;
			while (j > i + 1)
			{
				cursor.child(j) = cursor.child(j - 1);
				j -= 1
			}
			cursor.keys(i) = x;
			cursor.count += 1;
			cursor.child(i + 1) = child;
		}
		else
		{
			var newInternal: TreeNode = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			var virtualKey: Array[Int] = Array.fill[Int](this.degree + 1)(0);
			var virtualPtr: Array[TreeNode] = Array.fill[TreeNode](this.degree + 2)(null);
			i = 0;
			while (i < this.degree)
			{
				virtualKey(i) = cursor.keys(i);
				i += 1
			}
			i = 0;
			while (i < this.degree + 1)
			{
				virtualPtr(i) = cursor.child(i);
				i += 1
			}
			i = 0;
			while (x > virtualKey(i) && i < this.degree)
			{
				i += 1;
			}
			j = this.degree + 1;
			while (j > i)
			{
				virtualKey(j) = virtualKey(j - 1);
				j -= 1
			}
			virtualKey(i) = x;
			j = this.degree + 2;
			while (j > i + 1)
			{
				virtualPtr(j) = virtualPtr(j - 1);
				j -= 1;
			}
			virtualPtr(i + 1) = child;
			newInternal.isLeaf = false;
			cursor.count = ((this.degree + 1) / 2).toInt;
			newInternal.count = this.degree - ((this.degree + 1) / 2).toInt;
			i = 0;
          	j = cursor.count + 1;
			while (i < newInternal.count)
			{
				newInternal.keys(i) = virtualKey(j);
				i += 1; 
              	j += 1;
			}
			i = 0;
          	j = cursor.count + 1;
			while (i < newInternal.count + 1)
			{
				newInternal.child(i) = virtualPtr(j);
				i += 1;
                j += 1;
			}
			if (cursor == this.root)
			{
				this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				this.root.keys(0) = cursor.keys(cursor.count);
				this.root.child(0) = cursor;
				this.root.child(1) = newInternal;
				this.root.isLeaf = false;
				this.root.count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				insertInternal(cursor.keys(cursor.count), findParent(this.root, cursor), newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	def insert(x: Int): Unit = {
		if (this.root == null)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			this.root = new TreeNode(this.degree);
			this.root.isLeaf = true;
			this.root.count = 1;
			this.root.keys(0) = x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			var i: Int = 0;
			var j: Int = 0;
			var cursor: TreeNode = this.root;
			var parent: TreeNode = null;
			// Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor.isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				parent = cursor;
				i = 0;
				while (i < cursor.count)
				{
					if (x < cursor.keys(i))
					{
						cursor = cursor.child(i);
                      	// break
						i = cursor.count;
					}
					if (i == cursor.count - 1)
					{
						cursor = cursor.child(i + 1);
                      	// break
						i = cursor.count;
					}
					i += 1
				}
			}
			i = 0;
			if (cursor.count < this.degree)
			{
				
				while (x > cursor.keys(i) && i < cursor.count)
				{
					i += 1;
				}
				j = cursor.count;
				while (j > i)
				{
					cursor.keys(j) = cursor.keys(j - 1);
					j -= 1
				}
				cursor.keys(i) = x;
				cursor.count += 1;
				cursor.child(cursor.count) = cursor.child(cursor.count - 1);
				cursor.child(cursor.count - 1) = null;
			}
			else
			{
				var newLeaf: TreeNode = new TreeNode(this.degree);
				var virtualNode: Array[Int] = Array.fill[Int](this.degree + 2)(0);
				i = 0;
				while (i < this.degree)
				{
					virtualNode(i) = cursor.keys(i);
					i += 1
				}
				i = 0;
				while (x > virtualNode(i) && i < this.degree)
				{
					i += 1;
				}
				j = this.degree + 1;
				while (j > i)
				{
					virtualNode(j) = virtualNode(j - 1);
					j -= 1
				}
				virtualNode(i) = x;
				newLeaf.isLeaf = true;
				cursor.count = ((this.degree + 1) / 2).toInt;
				newLeaf.count = this.degree + 1 - ((this.degree + 1) / 2).toInt;
				cursor.child(cursor.count) = newLeaf;
				newLeaf.child(newLeaf.count) = cursor.child(this.degree);
				cursor.child(this.degree) = null;
				i = 0;
				while (i < cursor.count)
				{
					cursor.keys(i) = virtualNode(i);
					i += 1
				}
				i = 0;
              	j = cursor.count;
				while (i < newLeaf.count)
				{
					newLeaf.keys(i) = virtualNode(j);
					i += 1;
                    j += 1
				}
				if (cursor == this.root)
				{
					var newRoot: TreeNode = new TreeNode(this.degree);
					newRoot.keys(0) = newLeaf.keys(0);
					newRoot.child(0) = cursor;
					newRoot.child(1) = newLeaf;
					newRoot.isLeaf = false;
					newRoot.count = 1;
					this.root = newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					insertInternal(newLeaf.keys(0), parent, newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	def printNode(node: TreeNode): Unit = {
		if (node == null)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			var i: Int = 0;
			// iterate the node element
			while (i < node.count)
			{
				if (node.isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					printNode(node.child(i));
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					print("  " + node.keys(i));
				}
				i += 1;
			}
			if (node.isLeaf == false)
			{
				printNode(node.child(i));
			}
		}
	}
}
object Main
{
	def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
		// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
		var tree: BPTree = new BPTree(4);
		// Add node
		tree.insert(10);
		tree.insert(7);
		tree.insert(15);
		tree.insert(2);
		tree.insert(-3);
		tree.insert(12);
		tree.insert(35);
		tree.insert(14);
		// Print Tree elements
		tree.printNode(tree.root);
	}
}

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35
/*
  Swift 4 Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
class TreeNode
{
	var isLeaf: Bool;
	var keys: [Int];
	var count: Int;
	var child: [TreeNode?];
	init(_ degree: Int)
	{
		self.isLeaf = false;
		self.count = 0;
		self.keys = Array(repeating: 0, count: degree);
		self.child = Array(repeating: nil, count: degree + 1);
		// Set initial child
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i <= degree)
		{
			self.child[i] = nil;
			i += 1;
		}
	}
}
// Define tree structure
class BPTree
{
	var root: TreeNode? ;
	var degree: Int;
	init(_ degree: Int)
	{
		self.degree = degree;
		self.root = nil;
	}
	func findParent(_ cursor: TreeNode? , _ child : TreeNode? )->TreeNode?
	{
		var parent: TreeNode? = nil;
		if (cursor!.isLeaf == true || (cursor!.child[0])!.isLeaf == true)
		{
			return nil;
		}
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < cursor!.count + 1)
		{
			if (cursor!.child[i] === child)
			{
				parent = cursor;
				return parent;
			}
			else
			{
				parent = self.findParent(cursor!.child[i], child);
				if (parent  != nil)
				{
					return parent;
				}
			}
			i += 1;
		}
		return parent;
	}
	func insertInternal(_ x: Int, _ cursor: TreeNode? , _ child : TreeNode? )
	{
		var i: Int = 0;
		var j: Int = 0;
		if (cursor!.count < self.degree)
		{
			while (x > cursor!.keys[i] && i < cursor!.count)
			{
				i += 1;
			}
			j = cursor!.count;
			while (j > i)
			{
				cursor!.keys[j] = cursor!.keys[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			j = cursor!.count + 1;
			while (j > i + 1)
			{
				cursor!.child[j] = cursor!.child[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			cursor!.keys[i] = x;
			cursor!.count += 1;
			cursor!.child[i + 1] = child;
		}
		else
		{
			let newInternal: TreeNode = TreeNode(self.degree);
			var virtualKey: [Int] = Array(repeating: 0, count: self.degree + 1);
			var virtualPtr: [TreeNode?] = Array(repeating: nil, count: self.degree + 2);
			i = 0;
			while (i < self.degree)
			{
				virtualKey[i] = cursor!.keys[i];
				i += 1;
			}
			i = 0;
			while (i < self.degree + 1)
			{
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor!.child[i];
				i += 1;
			}
			i = 0;
			while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < self.degree)
			{
				i += 1;
			}
			j = self.degree + 1;
			while (j > i)
			{
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			virtualKey[i] = x;
			j = self.degree + 2;
			while (j > i + 1)
			{
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child;
			newInternal.isLeaf = false;
			cursor!.count = (self.degree + 1) / 2;
			newInternal.count = self.degree - (self.degree + 1) / 2;
			i = 0;
			j = cursor!.count + 1;
			while (i < newInternal.count)
			{
				newInternal.keys[i] = virtualKey[j];
				i += 1;
				j += 1;
			}
			i = 0;
			j = cursor!.count + 1;
			while (i < newInternal.count + 1)
			{
				newInternal.child[i] = virtualPtr[j];
				i += 1;
				j += 1;
			}
			if (cursor === self.root)
			{
				self.root = TreeNode(self.degree);
				self.root!.keys[0] = cursor!.keys[cursor!.count];
				self.root!.child[0] = cursor;
				self.root!.child[1] = newInternal;
				self.root!.isLeaf = false;
				self.root!.count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				self.insertInternal(cursor!.keys[cursor!.count], self.findParent(self.root, cursor), newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	func insert(_ x: Int)
	{
		if (self.root == nil)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			self.root = TreeNode(self.degree);
			self.root!.isLeaf = true;
			self.root!.count = 1;
			self.root!.keys[0] = x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			var i: Int = 0;
			var j: Int = 0;
			var cursor: TreeNode? = self.root;
			var parent: TreeNode? = nil;
			// Executes the loop until when cursor node is not leaf node
			while (cursor!.isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				parent = cursor;
				i = 0;
				while (i < cursor!.count)
				{
					if (x < cursor!.keys[i])
					{
						cursor = cursor!.child[i];
						break;
					}
					if (i == cursor!.count - 1)
					{
						cursor = cursor!.child[i + 1];
						break;
					}
					i += 1;
				}
			}
			if (cursor!.count < self.degree)
			{
				i = 0;
				while (x > cursor!.keys[i] && i < cursor!.count)
				{
					i += 1;
				}
				j = cursor!.count;
				while (j > i)
				{
					cursor!.keys[j] = cursor!.keys[j - 1];
					j -= 1;
				}
				cursor!.keys[i] = x;
				cursor!.count += 1;
				cursor!.child[cursor!.count] = cursor!.child[cursor!.count - 1];
				cursor!.child[cursor!.count - 1] = nil;
			}
			else
			{
				let newLeaf: TreeNode = TreeNode(self.degree);
				var virtualNode: [Int] = Array(repeating: 0, count: self.degree + 2);
				i = 0;
				while (i < self.degree)
				{
					virtualNode[i] = cursor!.keys[i];
					i += 1;
				}
				i = 0;
				while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < self.degree)
				{
					i += 1;
				}
				j = self.degree + 1;
				while (j > i)
				{
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1];
					j -= 1;
				}
				virtualNode[i] = x;
				newLeaf.isLeaf = true;
				cursor!.count = (self.degree + 1) / 2;
				newLeaf.count = self.degree + 1 - (self.degree + 1) / 2;
				cursor!.child[cursor!.count] = newLeaf;
				newLeaf.child[newLeaf.count] = cursor!.child[self.degree];
				cursor!.child[self.degree] = nil;
				i = 0;
				while (i < cursor!.count)
				{
					cursor!.keys[i] = virtualNode[i];
					i += 1;
				}
				i = 0;
				j = cursor!.count;
				while (i < newLeaf.count)
				{
					newLeaf.keys[i] = virtualNode[j];
					i += 1;
					j += 1;
				}
				if (cursor === self.root)
				{
					let newRoot: TreeNode = TreeNode(self.degree);
					newRoot.keys[0] = newLeaf.keys[0];
					newRoot.child[0] = cursor;
					newRoot.child[1] = newLeaf;
					newRoot.isLeaf = false;
					newRoot.count = 1;
					self.root = newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					self.insertInternal(newLeaf.keys[0], parent, newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	func printNode(_ node: TreeNode? )
	{
		if (node == nil)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			var i: Int = 0;
			// iterate the node element
			while (i < node!.count)
			{
				if (node!.isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					self.printNode(node!.child[i]);
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					print("  ", node!.keys[i], terminator: "");
				}
				i += 1;
			}
			if (node!.isLeaf == false)
			{
				self.printNode(node!.child[i]);
			}
		}
	}
}
func main()
{
	// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
	let tree: BPTree = BPTree(4);
	// Add node
	tree.insert(10);
	tree.insert(7);
	tree.insert(15);
	tree.insert(2);
	tree.insert(-3);
	tree.insert(12);
	tree.insert(35);
	tree.insert(14);
	// Print Tree elements
	tree.printNode(tree.root);
}
main();

input

   -3   2   7   10   12   14   15   35
/*
  Kotlin Program 
  Implement B Plus Tree Implement
*/
// Define tree node
class TreeNode
{
	var isLeaf: Boolean;
	var keys: Array < Int > ;
	var count: Int;
	var child: Array < TreeNode? > ;
	constructor(degree: Int)
	{
		this.isLeaf = false;
		this.count = 0;
		this.keys = Array(degree)
		{
			0
		};
		this.child = Array(degree + 1)
		{
			null
		};
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i <= degree)
		{
			this.child[i] = null;
			i += 1;
		}
	}
}
// Define tree structure
class BPTree
{
	var root: TreeNode ? ;
	var degree: Int;
	constructor(degree: Int)
	{
		this.degree = degree;
		this.root = null;
	}
	fun findParent(cursor: TreeNode ? , child : TreeNode ? ): TreeNode?
	{
		var parent: TreeNode ? = null;
		if (cursor!!.isLeaf == true || (cursor.child[0])!!.isLeaf == true)
		{
			return null;
		}
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < cursor.count + 1)
		{
			if (cursor.child[i] == child)
			{
				parent = cursor;
				return parent;
			}
			else
			{
				parent = this.findParent(cursor.child[i], child);
				if (parent != null)
				{
					return parent;
				}
			}
			i += 1;
		}
		return parent;
	}
	fun insertInternal(x: Int, cursor: TreeNode ? , child : TreeNode ? ): Unit
	{
		var i: Int = 0;
		var j: Int ;
		if (cursor!!.count < this.degree)
		{
			while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
			{
				i += 1;
			}
			j = cursor.count;
			while (j > i)
			{
				cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			j = cursor.count + 1;
			while (j > i + 1)
			{
				cursor.child[j] = cursor.child[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			cursor.keys[i] = x;
			cursor.count += 1;
			cursor.child[i + 1] = child;
		}
		else
		{
			val newInternal: TreeNode = TreeNode(this.degree);
			val virtualKey: Array < Int > = Array(this.degree + 1)
			{
				0
			};
			val virtualPtr: Array < TreeNode? > = Array(this.degree + 2)
			{
				null
			};
			i = 0;
			while (i < this.degree)
			{
				virtualKey[i] = cursor.keys[i];
				i += 1;
			}
			i = 0;
			while (i < this.degree + 1)
			{
				virtualPtr[i] = cursor.child[i];
				i += 1;
			}
			i = 0;
			while (x > virtualKey[i] && i < this.degree)
			{
				i += 1;
			}
			j = this.degree + 1;
			while (j > i)
			{
				virtualKey[j] = virtualKey[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			virtualKey[i] = x;
			j = this.degree + 2;
			while (j > i + 1)
			{
				virtualPtr[j] = virtualPtr[j - 1];
				j -= 1;
			}
			virtualPtr[i + 1] = child;
			newInternal.isLeaf = false;
			cursor.count = (this.degree + 1) / 2;
			newInternal.count = this.degree - (this.degree + 1) / 2;
			i = 0;
			j = cursor.count + 1;
			while (i < newInternal.count)
			{
				newInternal.keys[i] = virtualKey[j];
				i += 1;
				j += 1;
			}
			i = 0;
			j = cursor.count + 1;
			while (i < newInternal.count + 1)
			{
				newInternal.child[i] = virtualPtr[j];
				i += 1;
				j += 1;
			}
			if (cursor == this.root)
			{
				this.root = TreeNode(this.degree);
				this.root!!.keys[0] = cursor.keys[cursor.count];
				this.root!!.child[0] = cursor;
				this.root!!.child[1] = newInternal;
				this.root!!.isLeaf = false;
				this.root!!.count = 1;
			}
			else
			{
				this.insertInternal(cursor.keys[cursor.count], this.findParent(this.root, cursor), newInternal);
			}
		}
	}
	// Handles the request to add new node in B+ tree
	fun insert(x: Int): Unit
	{
		if (this.root == null)
		{
			// Add first node of tree
			this.root = TreeNode(this.degree);
			this.root!!.isLeaf = true;
			this.root!!.count = 1;
			this.root!!.keys[0] = x;
		}
		else
		{
			// Loop controlling variables
			var i: Int ;
			var j: Int ;
			var cursor: TreeNode ? = this.root;
			var parent: TreeNode ? = null;
			while (cursor!!.isLeaf == false)
			{
				// Get the current node
				parent = cursor;
				i = 0;
				while (i < cursor!!.count)
				{
					if (x < cursor.keys[i])
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i];
						break;
					}
					if (i == cursor.count - 1)
					{
						cursor = cursor.child[i + 1];
						break;
					}
					i += 1;
				}
			}
			if (cursor.count < this.degree)
			{
				i = 0;
				while (x > cursor.keys[i] && i < cursor.count)
				{
					i += 1;
				}
				j = cursor.count;
				while (j > i)
				{
					cursor.keys[j] = cursor.keys[j - 1];
					j -= 1;
				}
				cursor.keys[i] = x;
				cursor.count += 1;
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = cursor.child[cursor.count - 1];
				cursor.child[cursor.count - 1] = null;
			}
			else
			{
				val newLeaf: TreeNode = TreeNode(this.degree);
				val virtualNode: Array < Int > = Array(this.degree + 2)
				{
					0
				};
				i = 0;
				while (i < this.degree)
				{
					virtualNode[i] = cursor.keys[i];
					i += 1;
				}
				i = 0;
				while (x > virtualNode[i] && i < this.degree)
				{
					i += 1;
				}
				j = this.degree + 1;
				while (j > i)
				{
					virtualNode[j] = virtualNode[j - 1];
					j -= 1;
				}
				virtualNode[i] = x;
				newLeaf.isLeaf = true;
				cursor.count = (this.degree + 1) / 2;
				newLeaf.count = this.degree + 1 - (this.degree + 1) / 2;
				cursor.child[cursor.count] = newLeaf;
				newLeaf.child[newLeaf.count] = cursor.child[this.degree];
				cursor.child[this.degree] = null;
				i = 0;
				while (i < cursor.count)
				{
					cursor.keys[i] = virtualNode[i];
					i += 1;
				}
				i = 0;
				j = cursor.count;
				while (i < newLeaf.count)
				{
					newLeaf.keys[i] = virtualNode[j];
					i += 1;
					j += 1;
				}
				if (cursor == this.root)
				{
					val newRoot: TreeNode = TreeNode(this.degree);
					newRoot.keys[0] = newLeaf.keys[0];
					newRoot.child[0] = cursor;
					newRoot.child[1] = newLeaf;
					newRoot.isLeaf = false;
					newRoot.count = 1;
					this.root = newRoot;
				}
				else
				{
					this.insertInternal(newLeaf.keys[0], parent, newLeaf);
				}
			}
		}
	}
	// Print the elements of B+ tree elements
	fun printNode(node: TreeNode ? ): Unit
	{
		if (node == null)
		{
			// When node is empty
			return;
		}
		else
		{
			var i: Int = 0;
			while (i < node.count)
			{
				if (node.isLeaf == false)
				{
					// When node is not leaf
					this.printNode(node.child[i]);
				}
				else
				{
					// Print the left node value
					print("  " + node.keys[i]);
				}
				i += 1;
			}
			if (node.isLeaf == false)
			{
				this.printNode(node.child[i]);
			}
		}
	}
}
fun main(args: Array < String > ): Unit
{
	// Create a new b+ tree with degree 4
	val tree: BPTree = BPTree(4);
	// Add node
	tree.insert(10);
	tree.insert(7);
	tree.insert(15);
	tree.insert(2);
	tree.insert(-3);
	tree.insert(12);
	tree.insert(35);
	tree.insert(14);
	// Print Tree elements
	tree.printNode(tree.root);
}

input

  -3  2  7  10  12  14  15  35

Time Complexity

The average time complexity for insertion and searching in a B+ tree is O(log n), making it an efficient data structure for managing large datasets.

Java Code Work

B + Tree Implementation Java Example

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