Find minimum element in each column of the matrix
The problem to be solved entails finding the minimum element in each column of a given matrix. A matrix is a twodimensional array with rows and columns, and the objective is to identify and print the smallest element in each column.
Problem Statement
Given a matrix with dimensions ROW x COL, where each element is an integer, the task is to determine the minimum element in each column and display those minimum values.
Example
Consider the following matrix:
1 1 6 3
4 8 5 4
3 4 5 0
2 3 2 3
0 3 5 7
The minimum elements in each column are: 0, 1, 2, and 0.
Idea to Solve
To solve this problem, iterate through each column of the matrix and identify the minimum element in that column. Initialize a variable to store the minimum element for each column and update it while traversing the column.
Pseudocode
Here's the pseudocode for the algorithm:
function columnMinValue(matrix):
for i from 0 to COL1:
min_element = matrix[0][i] // Initialize min_element with the first element of the column
for j from 1 to ROW1:
if matrix[j][i] < min_element:
min_element = matrix[j][i] // Update min_element if a smaller element is found
print min_element
Algorithm Explanation
 Define a function
columnMinValue
that takes a 2D matrixmatrix
as its input.  Initialize a loop that iterates through each column of the matrix from 0 to COL1 (inclusive).
 Inside the outer loop, initialize a variable
min_element
with the value of the first element in the current column (matrix[0][i]).  Implement an inner loop that starts from 1 and iterates through each row of the current column (from 1 to ROW1).
 Within the inner loop, compare the current element (matrix[j][i]) with
min_element
. If the current element is smaller thanmin_element
, updatemin_element
with the value of the current element.  After the inner loop completes, print the value of
min_element
, representing the minimum element in the current column.  The outer loop advances to the next column, and the process repeats until all columns are processed.
Code Solution

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Time Complexity
The time complexity of this algorithm is O(ROW * COL), where ROW is the number of rows in the matrix and COL is the number of columns. The algorithm iterates through each element of the matrix exactly once to find the minimum element in each column. The nested loops contribute to the complexity.
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