Convert string to number

// C Program
// Convert string to number
#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h> // for strtol

int main()
{
	char text[] = "1234";
	char *ptr;
	// 10 indicate decimal number
	int num = strtol(text, & ptr, 10);
	printf("%d\n", num);
	return 0;
}

Output

1234
/*
   Java Program for
   Convert string to number
*/
public class StringToNumber
{
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		String text = "1234";
		// Convert string to number
		int num = Integer.parseInt(text);
		System.out.print(num);
	}
}

Output

1234
// Include header file
#include <iostream>
#include <stdlib.h>
using namespace std;
/*
   C++ Program for
   Convert string to number
*/
int main()
{
	char text[] = "1234";
	// Convert string to number
	int num = atoi(text);
	cout << num;
	return 0;
}

Output

1234
// Include namespace system
using System;
using System.Globalization;
/*
   C# Program for
   Convert string to number
*/
public class StringToNumber
{
	public static void Main(String[] args)
	{
		String text = "-1234";
		// Convert string to number
		int num = int.Parse(text, NumberStyles.AllowLeadingSign);
		Console.Write(num);
	}
}

Output

-1234
<?php
/*
   Php Program for
   Convert string to number
*/
class StringToNumber
{}

function main()
{
	$text = "1234";
	// Convert string to number
	$num = intval($text);
	echo $num;
  	echo "\n".gettype($num);
}
main();

Output

1234
integer
/*
   Node Js Program for
   Convert string to number
*/
class StringToNumber
{}

function main()
{
	var text = "1234";
	// Convert string to number
	var num = parseInt(text);
	console.log(num, typeof num);
}
main();

Output

1234 'number'
#    Python 3 Program for
#    Convert string to number

def main() :
	text = "1234"
	#  Convert string to number
	num = int(text)
	print(num, end = "")

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

Output

1234
#    Ruby Program for
#    Convert string to number

class StringToNumber end

def main() 
	text = "1234"
	#  Convert string to number
	num = text.to_i # to_f for float
	print(num,"  ",num.class)
end

main()

Output

1234  Fixnum
/*
   Scala Program for
   Convert string to number
*/
object Main
{
	def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
		var text: String = "1234";
		// Convert string to number
		var num: Int = (text).toInt;
		print(num);
	}
}

Output

1234
/*
   Swift 4 Program for
   Convert string to number
*/
class StringToNumber
{}
func main()
{
	let text: String = "1234";
	// Convert string to number
	let num: Int? = Int(text) ;
	print(num!, terminator: "");
}
main();

Output

1234
/*
   Kotlin Program for
   Convert string to number
*/

fun main(args: Array < String > ): Unit
{
	var text: String = "1234";
	// Convert string to number
	var num: Int = text.toInt();
	print(num);
  	print("\n "+num::class.simpleName);
}

Output

1234
 Int

Second approach, Custom code to convert given string value into number. Here given code implementation process.

//C++ Program
//Convert string to number
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;
class MyString
{
	public:
		//This function is returning a valid number of given string
		//When string is not valid number that is return zero value
		double str_to_number(string text)
		{
			//Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of double (number)
			int size = text.size();
			if (size == 0)
			{
				//When have empty string
				return 0;
			}
			double number = 0;
			int is_nagative = 0;
			double result = 0.0;
			//This are used when floating point numbers are exist
			int fraction = 0;
			if (size > 0 && text[0] == '-')
			{
				//When number is nagative
				is_nagative = 1;
			}
			for (int i = is_nagative; i < size; ++i)
			{
				if (fraction == 0 && text[i] == '.')
				{
					//Floating point numbers are exist
					fraction = 1;
				}
				else if (text[i] >= '0' && text[i] <= '9')
				{
					//When digit is exist
					number = (number * 10) + (text[i] - '0');
					if (fraction != 0)
					{
						//When Fraction part exist
						fraction = fraction * 10;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					//When text is not number
					return 0;
				}
			}
			if (fraction != 0)
			{
				result = number / fraction;
			}
			else
			{
				result = number;
			}
			if (is_nagative == 1)
			{
				result = -result;
			}
			return result;
		}
};
int main()
{
	MyString obj;
	//Some test cases
	string text = "1234";
	double number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	//Test when number is nagative or not
	text = "-12345";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	text = "--1234";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	text = "-12a345";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	text = "15.50";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	text = "15.58";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	text = "-15.58";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	text = "10.45.8";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	cout << text << " : " << number << endl;
	return 0;
}

Output

1234 : 1234
-12345 : -12345
--1234 : 0
-12a345 : 0
15.50 : 15.5
15.58 : 15.58
-15.58 : -15.58
10.45.8 : 0
//Java Program 
//Convert string to number
class MyString
{
	//This function is returning a valid number of given string
	//When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	public double str_to_number(String text)
	{
		//Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		int size = text.length();
		if (size == 0)
		{
			return 0;
		}
		double number = 0;
		int is_nagative = 0;
		double result = 0.0;
		//This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		int fraction = 0;
		if (size > 0 && text.charAt(0) == '-')
		{
			//When number is nagative
			is_nagative = 1;
		}
		for (int i = is_nagative; i < size; ++i)
		{
			if (fraction == 0 && text.charAt(i) == '.')
			{
				//Floating point numbers are exist
				fraction = 1;
			}
			else if (text.charAt(i) >= '0' && text.charAt(i) <= '9')
			{
				//When digit is exist
				number = (number * 10) + (text.charAt(i) - '0');
				if (fraction != 0)
				{
					//When Fraction part exist
					fraction = fraction * 10;
				}
			}
			else
			{
				//When text is not number
				return 0;
			}
		}
		if (fraction != 0)
		{
			result = number / fraction;
		}
		else
		{
			result = number;
		}
		if (is_nagative == 1)
		{
			result = -result;
		}
		return result;
	}
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		MyString obj = new MyString();
		//Some test cases
		String text = "1234";
		double number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		//Test when number is nagative or not
		text = "-12345";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "--1234";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "-12a345";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "15.50";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "15.58";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "-15.58";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "10.45.8";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		System.out.print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	}
}

Output

1234 : 1234.0
-12345 : -12345.0
--1234 : 0.0
-12a345 : 0.0
15.50 : 15.5
15.58 : 15.58
-15.58 : -15.58
10.45.8 : 0.0
//Include namespace system
using System;
//C# Program 
//Convert string to number
class MyString
{
	//This function is returning a valid number of given string
	//When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	public double str_to_number(String text)
	{
		//Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		int size = text.Length;
		if (size == 0)
		{
			return 0;
		}
		double number = 0;
		int is_nagative = 0;
		double result = 0.0;
		//This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		int fraction = 0;
		if (size > 0 && text[0] == '-')
		{
			//When number is nagative
			is_nagative = 1;
		}
		for (int i = is_nagative; i < size; ++i)
		{
			if (fraction == 0 && text[i] == '.')
			{
				//Floating point numbers are exist
				fraction = 1;
			}
			else if (text[i] >= '0' && text[i] <= '9')
			{
				//When digit is exist
				number = (number * 10) + (text[i] - '0');
				if (fraction != 0)
				{
					//When Fraction part exist
					fraction = fraction * 10;
				}
			}
			else
			{
				//When text is not number
				return 0;
			}
		}
		if (fraction != 0)
		{
			result = number / fraction;
		}
		else
		{
			result = number;
		}
		if (is_nagative == 1)
		{
			result = -result;
		}
		return result;
	}
	public static void Main(String[] args)
	{
		MyString obj = new MyString();
		//Some test cases
		String text = "1234";
		double number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		//Test when number is nagative or not
		text = "-12345";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "--1234";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "-12a345";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "15.50";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "15.58";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "-15.58";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "10.45.8";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		Console.Write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	}
}

Output

1234 : 1234
-12345 : -12345
--1234 : 0
-12a345 : 0
15.50 : 15.5
15.58 : 15.58
-15.58 : -15.58
10.45.8 : 0
<?php
//Php Program 
//Convert string to number
class MyString
{
	//This function is returning a valid number of given string
	//When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	public	function str_to_number($text)
	{
		//Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		$size = strlen($text);
		if ($size == 0)
		{
			return 0;
		}
		$number = 0;
		$is_nagative = 0;
		$result = 0.0;
		//This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		$fraction = 0;
		if ($size > 0 && $text[0] == '-')
		{
			//When number is nagative
			$is_nagative = 1;
		}
		for ($i = $is_nagative; $i < $size; ++$i)
		{
			if ($fraction == 0 && $text[$i] == '.')
			{
				//Floating point numbers are exist
				$fraction = 1;
			}
			else if (ord($text[$i]) >= ord('0') && ord($text[$i]) <= ord('9'))
			{
				//When digit is exist
				$number = ($number * 10) + (ord($text[$i]) - ord('0'));
				if ($fraction != 0)
				{
					//When Fraction part exist
					$fraction = $fraction * 10;
				}
			}
			else
			{
				//When text is not number
				return 0;
			}
		}
		if ($fraction != 0)
		{
			$result = $number / $fraction;
		}
		else
		{
			$result = $number;
		}
		if ($is_nagative == 1)
		{
			$result = -$result;
		}
		return $result;
	}
}

function main()
{
	$obj = new MyString();
	//Some test cases
	$text = "1234";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
	//Test when number is nagative or not
	$text = "-12345";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
	$text = "--1234";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
	$text = "-12a345";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
	$text = "15.50";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
	$text = "15.58";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
	$text = "-15.58";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
	$text = "10.45.8";
	$number = $obj->str_to_number($text);
	echo $text ." : ". $number ."\n";
}
main();

Output

1234 : 1234
-12345 : -12345
--1234 : 0
-12a345 : 0
15.50 : 15.5
15.58 : 15.58
-15.58 : -15.58
10.45.8 : 0
//Node Js Program 
//Convert string to number
class MyString
{
	//This function is returning a valid number of given string
	//When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	str_to_number(text)
	{
		//Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		var size = text.length;
		if (size == 0)
		{
			return 0;
		}
		var number = 0;
		var is_nagative = 0;
		var result = 0.0;
		//This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		var fraction = 0;
		if (size > 0 && text[0] == '-')
		{
			//When number is nagative
			is_nagative = 1;
		}
		for (var i = is_nagative; i < size; ++i)
		{
			if (fraction == 0 && text[i] == '.')
			{
				//Floating point numbers are exist
				fraction = 1;
			}
			else if (text[i] >= '0' && text[i] <= '9')
			{
				//When digit is exist
				number = (number * 10) + (text[i] - '0');
				if (fraction != 0)
				{
					//When Fraction part exist
					fraction = fraction * 10;
				}
			}
			else
			{
				//When text is not number
				return 0;
			}
		}
		if (fraction != 0)
		{
			result = number / fraction;
		}
		else
		{
			result = number;
		}
		if (is_nagative == 1)
		{
			result = -result;
		}
		return result;
	}
}

function main()
{
	var obj = new MyString();
	//Some test cases
	var text = "1234";
	var number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	//Test when number is nagative or not
	text = "-12345";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	text = "--1234";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	text = "-12a345";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	text = "15.50";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	text = "15.58";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	text = "-15.58";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	text = "10.45.8";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	process.stdout.write(text + " : " + number + "\n");
}
main();

Output

1234 : 1234
-12345 : -12345
--1234 : 0
-12a345 : 0
15.50 : 15.5
15.58 : 15.58
-15.58 : -15.58
10.45.8 : 0
# Python 3 Program 
# Convert string to number
class MyString :
	# This function is returning a valid number of given string
	# When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	def str_to_number(self, text) :
		# Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		size = len(text)
		if (size == 0) :
			return 0
		
		number = 0
		is_nagative = 0
		result = 0.0
		# This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		fraction = 0
		if (size > 0 and text[0] == '-') :
			# When number is nagative
			is_nagative = 1
		
		i = is_nagative
		while (i < size) :
			if (fraction == 0 and text[i] == '.') :
				# Floating point numbers are exist
				fraction = 1
			
			elif(ord(text[i]) >= ord('0') and ord(text[i]) <= ord('9')) :
				# When digit is exist
				number = (number * 10) + (ord(text[i]) - ord('0'))
				if (fraction != 0) :
					# When Fraction part exist
					fraction = fraction * 10
				
			else :
				# When text is not number
				return 0
			
			i += 1
		
		if (fraction != 0) :
			result = number / fraction
		else :
			result = number
		
		if (is_nagative == 1) :
			result = -result
		
		return result
	

def main() :
	obj = MyString()
	# Some test cases
	text = "1234"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")
	# Test when number is nagative or not
	text = "-12345"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")
	text = "--1234"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")
	text = "-12a345"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")
	text = "15.50"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")
	text = "15.58"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")
	text = "-15.58"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")
	text = "10.45.8"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", end = "")

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

Output

1234  :  1234
-12345  :  -12345
--1234  :  0
-12a345  :  0
15.50  :  15.5
15.58  :  15.58
-15.58  :  -15.58
10.45.8  :  0
# Ruby Program 
# Convert string to number
class MyString

	# This function is returning a valid number of given string
	# When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	def str_to_number(text)
	
		# Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		size = text.length()
		if (size == 0)
		
			return 0
		end
		number = 0
		is_nagative = 0
		result = 0.0
		# This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		fraction = 0
		if (size > 0 && text[0] == '-')
		
			# When number is nagative
			is_nagative = 1
		end
		i = is_nagative
		while (i < size)
		
			if (fraction == 0 && text[i] == '.')
			
				# Floating point numbers are exist
				fraction = 1
			elsif((text[i]).ord >= ('0').ord && (text[i]).ord <= ('9').ord)
			
				# When digit is exist
				number = (number * 10) + ((text[i]).ord - ('0').ord)
				if (fraction != 0)
				
					# When Fraction part exist
					fraction = fraction * 10
				end
			else
			
				# When text is not number
				return 0
			end
			i += 1
		end
		if (fraction != 0)
		
			result = number / fraction
		else
		
			result = number
		end
		if (is_nagative == 1)
		
			result = -result
		end
		return result
	end
end
def main()

	obj = MyString.new()
	# Some test cases
	text = "1234"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
	# Test when number is nagative or not
	text = "-12345"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
	text = "--1234"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
	text = "-12a345"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
	text = "15.50"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
	text = "15.58"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
	text = "-15.58"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
	text = "10.45.8"
	number = obj.str_to_number(text)
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n")
end
main()

Output

1234 : 1234
-12345 : -12345
--1234 : 0
-12a345 : 0
15.50 : 15
15.58 : 15
-15.58 : -15
10.45.8 : 0
//Scala Program 
//Convert string to number
class MyString
{
	//This function is returning a valid number of given string
	//When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	def str_to_number(text: String): Double = {
		//Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		var size: Int = text.length();
		if (size == 0)
		{
			return 0;
		}
		var number: Double = 0;
		var is_nagative: Int = 0;
		var result: Double = 0.0;
		//This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		var fraction: Int = 0;
		if (size > 0 && text(0) == '-')
		{
			//When number is nagative
			is_nagative = 1;
		}
		var i: Int = is_nagative;
		while (i < size)
		{
			if (fraction == 0 && text(i) == '.')
			{
				//Floating point numbers are exist
				fraction = 1;
			}
			else if (text(i) >= '0' && text(i) <= '9')
			{
				//When digit is exist
				number = (number * 10) + (text(i) - '0');
				if (fraction != 0)
				{
					//When Fraction part exist
					fraction = fraction * 10;
				}
			}
			else
			{
				//When text is not number
				return 0;
			}
			i += 1;
		}
		if (fraction != 0)
		{
			result = number / fraction;
		}
		else
		{
			result = number;
		}
		if (is_nagative == 1)
		{
			result = -result;
		}
		return result;
	}
}
object Main
{
	def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
		var obj: MyString = new MyString();
		//Some test cases
		var text: String = "1234";
		var number: Double = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		//Test when number is nagative or not
		text = "-12345";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "--1234";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "-12a345";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "15.50";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "15.58";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "-15.58";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
		text = "10.45.8";
		number = obj.str_to_number(text);
		print(text + " : " + number + "\n");
	}
}

Output

1234 : 1234.0
-12345 : -12345.0
--1234 : 0.0
-12a345 : 0.0
15.50 : 15.5
15.58 : 15.58
-15.58 : -15.58
10.45.8 : 0.0
//Swift Program 
//Convert string to number
class MyString
{
	//This function is returning a valid number of given string
	//When string is not valid number that is return 0 value
	func str_to_number(_ str_data: String) -> Double
	{
        let text = Array(str_data);
		//Assuming that given text result not exceed the size of int (number)
		let size: Int = str_data.count;
		if (size == 0)
		{
			return 0;
		}
		var number: Double = 0;
		var is_nagative: Int = 0;
		var result: Double = 0.0;
        let zero = Int(UnicodeScalar("0")!.value);
        let nine = Int(UnicodeScalar("9")!.value);
		//This are used when floating point numbers are exist
		var fraction: Int = 0;
		if (size > 0 && text[0] == "-")
		{
			//When number is nagative
			is_nagative = 1;
		}
		var i: Int = is_nagative;
		while (i < size)
		{
            let data = Int(UnicodeScalar(String(text[i]))!.value);
	
			if (fraction == 0 && text[i] == ".")
			{
				//Floating point numbers are exist
				fraction = 1;
			}
			else if (data >= zero && data <= nine)
			{
				//When digit is exist
				number = (number * 10) + Double(data - zero);
				if (fraction != 0)
				{
					//When Fraction part exist
					fraction = fraction * 10;
				}
			}
			else
			{
				//When text is not number
				return 0;
			}
			i += 1;
		}
		if (fraction != 0)
		{
			result = number / Double(fraction);
		}
		else
		{
			result = number;
		}
		if (is_nagative == 1)
		{
			result = -result;
		}
		return result;
	}
}
func main()
{
	let obj: MyString = MyString();
	//Some test cases
	var text: String = "1234";
	var number: Double = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
	//Test when number is nagative or not
	text = "-12345";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
	text = "--1234";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
	text = "-12a345";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
	text = "15.50";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
	text = "15.58";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
	text = "-15.58";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
	text = "10.45.8";
	number = obj.str_to_number(text);
	print(text ," : ", number ,"\n", terminator: "");
}
main();

Output

1234  :  1234.0
-12345  :  -12345.0
--1234  :  0.0
-12a345  :  0.0
15.50  :  15.5
15.58  :  15.58
-15.58  :  -15.58
10.45.8  :  0.0

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