Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees

Minimum spanning tree example

Here given code implementation process.

// Include header file
#include <iostream>

#include <vector>

using namespace std;
/*
    C++ Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
class Edge
{
    public:
    // Edge weight or cost  
    int weight;
    int dest;
    int src;
    Edge *next;

    Edge(int weight, int src, int dest)
    {
        this->weight = weight;
        this->dest = dest;
        this->src = src;
        this->next = NULL;
    }
};
class State
{
    public: int parent;
    int rank;
    State(int parent, int rank)
    {
        this->parent = parent;
        this->rank = rank;
    }
};
class Graph
{
    public: int vertices;
    vector < vector < Edge *> > graphEdge;
    Graph(int vertices)
    {
        this->vertices = vertices;
       
        for (int i = 0; i < this->vertices; ++i)
        {
            this->graphEdge.push_back(vector < Edge *> ());
        }
    }
    void addEdge(int src, int dest, int w)
    {
        if (dest < 0 || dest >= this->vertices || 
             src < 0 || src >= this->vertices)
        {
            return;
        }
        // add node edge
        this->graphEdge.at(src).push_back(new Edge(w, src, dest));
        if (dest == src)
        {
            return;
        }
        this->graphEdge.at(dest).push_back(new Edge(w, dest, src));
    }
    void printGraph()
    {
        cout << "\n Graph Adjacency List ";
        for (int i = 0; i < this->vertices; ++i)
        {
            cout << " \n [" << i << "] :";
            // iterate edges of i node
            for (int j = 0; j < this->graphEdge.at(i).size(); ++j)
            {
                cout << "  " << this->graphEdge.at(i).at(j)->dest;
            }
        }
    }
    int find(State **subsets, int i)
    {
        if (subsets[i]->parent != i)
        {
            subsets[i]->parent = this->find(subsets, subsets[i]->parent);
        }
        return subsets[i]->parent;
    }
    void findUnion(State **subsets, int x, int y)
    {
        int a = this->find(subsets, x);
        int b = this->find(subsets, y);
        if (subsets[a]->rank < subsets[b]->rank)
        {
            subsets[a]->parent = b;
        }
        else if (subsets[a]->rank > subsets[b]->rank)
        {
            subsets[b]->parent = a;
        }
        else
        {
            subsets[b]->parent = a;
            subsets[a]->rank++;
        }
    }
    void boruvkaMST()
    {
        // Contain weight sum in mst path
        int result = 0;
        int selector = this->vertices;
        State **subsets = new State*[this->vertices];
        Edge **cheapest = new Edge*[this->vertices];
        for (int v = 0; v < this->vertices; ++v)
        {
            subsets[v] = new State(v, 0);
        }
        while (selector > 1)
        {
            for (int v = 0; v < this->vertices; ++v)
            {
                cheapest[v] = NULL;
            }
            for (int k = 0; k < this->vertices; k++)
            {
                for (int i = 0; i < this->graphEdge.at(k).size(); ++i)
                {
                    int set1 = this->find(subsets, 
                        this->graphEdge.at(k).at(i)->src);
                    int set2 = this->find(subsets, 
                        this->graphEdge.at(k).at(i)->dest);
                    if (set1 != set2)
                    {
                        if (cheapest[k] == NULL)
                        {
                            cheapest[k] = this->graphEdge.at(k).at(i);
                        }
                        else if (cheapest[k]->weight > 
                            this->graphEdge.at(k).at(i)->weight)
                        {
                            cheapest[k] = this->graphEdge.at(k).at(i);
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            for (int i = 0; i < this->vertices; i++)
            {
                if (cheapest[i] != NULL)
                {
                    int set1 = this->find(subsets, cheapest[i]->src);
                    int set2 = this->find(subsets, cheapest[i]->dest);
                    if (set1 != set2)
                    {
                        // Reduce a edge
                        selector--;
                        this->findUnion(subsets, set1, set2);
                        // Display the edge connection
                        cout << "\n Include Edge (" 
                             << cheapest[i]->src 
                             << " - " 
                             << cheapest[i]->dest 
                             << ") weight " 
                             << cheapest[i]->weight;
                        // Add weight
                        result += cheapest[i]->weight;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        cout << "\n Calculated total weight of MST is " 
             << result << endl;
    }
};
int main()
{
    Graph *g = new Graph(10);
    g->addEdge(0, 1, 7);
    g->addEdge(0, 7, 6);
    g->addEdge(0, 8, 4);
    g->addEdge(1, 2, 9);
    g->addEdge(1, 8, 6);
    g->addEdge(2, 3, 8);
    g->addEdge(2, 6, 12);
    g->addEdge(2, 9, 14);
    g->addEdge(3, 4, 16);
    g->addEdge(3, 9, 5);
    g->addEdge(4, 5, 15);
    g->addEdge(5, 6, 8);
    g->addEdge(5, 9, 7);
    g->addEdge(6, 7, 2);
    g->addEdge(6, 8, 10);
    g->addEdge(8, 9, 3);
    // Display graph element
    g->printGraph();
    // Find MST
    g->boruvkaMST();
    return 0;
}

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
import java.util.ArrayList;
/*
    Java Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
class Edge
{
	// Edge weight or cost  
	public int weight;
	public int dest;
	public int src;
	public Edge next;
	public Edge(int weight, int src, int dest)
	{
		this.weight = weight;
		this.dest = dest;
		this.src = src;
		this.next = null;
	}
}
class State
{
	public int parent;
	public int rank;
	public State(int parent, int rank)
	{
		this.parent = parent;
		this.rank = rank;
	}
}
public class Graph
{
	public int vertices;
	public ArrayList < ArrayList < Edge >> graphEdge;
	public Graph(int vertices)
	{
		this.vertices = vertices;
		this.graphEdge = new ArrayList < ArrayList < Edge >> (vertices);
		for (int i = 0; i < this.vertices; ++i)
		{
			this.graphEdge.add(new ArrayList < Edge > ());
		}
	}
	public void addEdge(int src, int dest, int w)
	{
		if (dest < 0 || dest >= this.vertices || src < 0 || src >= this.vertices)
		{
			return;
		}
		// add node edge
		graphEdge.get(src).add(new Edge(w, src, dest));
		if (dest == src)
		{
			return;
		}
		graphEdge.get(dest).add(new Edge(w, dest, src));
	}
	public void printGraph()
	{
		System.out.print("\n Graph Adjacency List ");
		for (int i = 0; i < this.vertices; ++i)
		{
			System.out.print(" \n [" + i + "] :");
			// iterate edges of i node
			for (int j = 0; j < this.graphEdge.get(i).size(); ++j)
			{
				System.out.print("  " + 
                                 this.graphEdge.get(i).get(j).dest);
			}
		}
	}
	public int find(State[] subsets, int i)
	{
		if (subsets[i].parent != i)
		{
			subsets[i].parent = find(subsets, subsets[i].parent);
		}
		return subsets[i].parent;
	}
	void findUnion(State[] subsets, int x, int y)
	{
		int a = find(subsets, x);
		int b = find(subsets, y);
		if (subsets[a].rank < subsets[b].rank)
		{
			subsets[a].parent = b;
		}
		else if (subsets[a].rank > subsets[b].rank)
		{
			subsets[b].parent = a;
		}
		else
		{
			subsets[b].parent = a;
			subsets[a].rank++;
		}
	}
	public void boruvkaMST()
	{
		// Contain weight sum in mst path
		int result = 0;
		int selector = this.vertices;
		State[] subsets = new State[this.vertices];
		Edge[] cheapest = new Edge[this.vertices];
		for (int v = 0; v < this.vertices; ++v)
		{
			subsets[v] = new State(v, 0);
		}
		while (selector > 1)
		{
			for (int v = 0; v < this.vertices; ++v)
			{
				cheapest[v] = null;
			}
			for (int k = 0; k < this.vertices; k++)
			{
				for (int i = 0; i < this.graphEdge.get(k).size(); ++i)
				{
					int set1 = find(subsets, 
                                    this.graphEdge.get(k).get(i).src);
					int set2 = find(subsets,
                                    this.graphEdge.get(k).get(i).dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						if (cheapest[k] == null)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge.get(k).get(i);
						}
						else if (cheapest[k].weight >
                                 this.graphEdge.get(k).get(i).weight)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge.get(k).get(i);
						}
					}
				}
			}
			for (int i = 0; i < this.vertices; i++)
			{
				if (cheapest[i] != null)
				{
					int set1 = find(subsets, cheapest[i].src);
					int set2 = find(subsets, cheapest[i].dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						// Reduce a edge
						selector--;
						findUnion(subsets, set1, set2);
						// Display the edge connection
						System.out.print("\n Include Edge (" + 
                                         cheapest[i].src + " - " +
                                         cheapest[i].dest + ") weight " +
                                         cheapest[i].weight);
						// Add weight
						result += cheapest[i].weight;
					}
				}
			}
		}
		System.out.println("\n Calculated total weight of MST is " + 
                           result);
	}
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		Graph g = new Graph(10);
		g.addEdge(0, 1, 7);
		g.addEdge(0, 7, 6);
		g.addEdge(0, 8, 4);
		g.addEdge(1, 2, 9);
		g.addEdge(1, 8, 6);
		g.addEdge(2, 3, 8);
		g.addEdge(2, 6, 12);
		g.addEdge(2, 9, 14);
		g.addEdge(3, 4, 16);
		g.addEdge(3, 9, 5);
		g.addEdge(4, 5, 15);
		g.addEdge(5, 6, 8);
		g.addEdge(5, 9, 7);
		g.addEdge(6, 7, 2);
		g.addEdge(6, 8, 10);
		g.addEdge(8, 9, 3);
		// Display graph element
		g.printGraph();
		// Find MST
		g.boruvkaMST();
	}
}

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
// Include namespace system
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
/*
    Csharp Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
public class Edge
{
	// Edge weight or cost  
	public int weight;
	public int dest;
	public int src;
	public Edge next;
	public Edge(int weight, int src, int dest)
	{
		this.weight = weight;
		this.dest = dest;
		this.src = src;
		this.next = null;
	}
}
public class State
{
	public int parent;
	public int rank;
	public State(int parent, int rank)
	{
		this.parent = parent;
		this.rank = rank;
	}
}
public class Graph
{
	public int vertices;
	public List < List < Edge >> graphEdge;
	public Graph(int vertices)
	{
		this.vertices = vertices;
		this.graphEdge = new List < List < Edge >> (vertices);
		for (int i = 0; i < this.vertices; ++i)
		{
			this.graphEdge.Add(new List < Edge > ());
		}
	}
	public void addEdge(int src, int dest, int w)
	{
		if (dest < 0 || dest >= this.vertices || src < 0 || src >= this.vertices)
		{
			return;
		}
		// add node edge
		this.graphEdge[src].Add(new Edge(w, src, dest));
		if (dest == src)
		{
			return;
		}
		this.graphEdge[dest].Add(new Edge(w, dest, src));
	}
	public void printGraph()
	{
		Console.Write("\n Graph Adjacency List ");
		for (int i = 0; i < this.vertices; ++i)
		{
			Console.Write(" \n [" + i + "] :");
			// iterate edges of i node
			for (int j = 0; j < this.graphEdge[i].Count; ++j)
			{
				Console.Write("  " + this.graphEdge[i][j].dest);
			}
		}
	}
	public int find(State[] subsets, int i)
	{
		if (subsets[i].parent != i)
		{
			subsets[i].parent = this.find(subsets, subsets[i].parent);
		}
		return subsets[i].parent;
	}
	void findUnion(State[] subsets, int x, int y)
	{
		int a = this.find(subsets, x);
		int b = this.find(subsets, y);
		if (subsets[a].rank < subsets[b].rank)
		{
			subsets[a].parent = b;
		}
		else if (subsets[a].rank > subsets[b].rank)
		{
			subsets[b].parent = a;
		}
		else
		{
			subsets[b].parent = a;
			subsets[a].rank++;
		}
	}
	public void boruvkaMST()
	{
		// Contain weight sum in mst path
		int result = 0;
		int selector = this.vertices;
		State[] subsets = new State[this.vertices];
		Edge[] cheapest = new Edge[this.vertices];
		for (int v = 0; v < this.vertices; ++v)
		{
			subsets[v] = new State(v, 0);
		}
		while (selector > 1)
		{
			for (int v = 0; v < this.vertices; ++v)
			{
				cheapest[v] = null;
			}
			for (int k = 0; k < this.vertices; k++)
			{
				for (int i = 0; i < this.graphEdge[k].Count; ++i)
				{
					int set1 = this.find(subsets, this.graphEdge[k][i].src);
					int set2 = this.find(subsets, this.graphEdge[k][i].dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						if (cheapest[k] == null)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
						else if (cheapest[k].weight > 
                                 this.graphEdge[k][i].weight)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
					}
				}
			}
			for (int i = 0; i < this.vertices; i++)
			{
				if (cheapest[i] != null)
				{
					int set1 = this.find(subsets, cheapest[i].src);
					int set2 = this.find(subsets, cheapest[i].dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						// Reduce a edge
						selector--;
						this.findUnion(subsets, set1, set2);
						// Display the edge connection
						Console.Write("\n Include Edge (" + 
                                      cheapest[i].src + " - " + 
                                      cheapest[i].dest + ") weight " +
                                      cheapest[i].weight);
						// Add weight
						result += cheapest[i].weight;
					}
				}
			}
		}
		Console.WriteLine("\n Calculated total weight of MST is " + result);
	}
	public static void Main(String[] args)
	{
		Graph g = new Graph(10);
		g.addEdge(0, 1, 7);
		g.addEdge(0, 7, 6);
		g.addEdge(0, 8, 4);
		g.addEdge(1, 2, 9);
		g.addEdge(1, 8, 6);
		g.addEdge(2, 3, 8);
		g.addEdge(2, 6, 12);
		g.addEdge(2, 9, 14);
		g.addEdge(3, 4, 16);
		g.addEdge(3, 9, 5);
		g.addEdge(4, 5, 15);
		g.addEdge(5, 6, 8);
		g.addEdge(5, 9, 7);
		g.addEdge(6, 7, 2);
		g.addEdge(6, 8, 10);
		g.addEdge(8, 9, 3);
		// Display graph element
		g.printGraph();
		// Find MST
		g.boruvkaMST();
	}
}

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
<?php
/*
    Php Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
class Edge
{
	// Edge weight or cost  
	public $weight;
	public $dest;
	public $src;
	public $next;
	public	function __construct($weight, $src, $dest)
	{
		$this->weight = $weight;
		$this->dest = $dest;
		$this->src = $src;
		$this->next = NULL;
	}
}
class State
{
	public $parent;
	public $rank;
	public	function __construct($parent, $rank)
	{
		$this->parent = $parent;
		$this->rank = $rank;
	}
}
class Graph
{
	public $vertices;
	public $graphEdge;
	public	function __construct($vertices)
	{
		$this->vertices = $vertices;
		$this->graphEdge = array();
		for ($i = 0; $i < $this->vertices; ++$i)
		{
			$this->graphEdge[] = array();
		}
	}
	public	function addEdge($src, $dest, $w)
	{
		if ($dest < 0 || $dest >= $this->vertices || 
            $src < 0 || $src >= $this->vertices)
		{
			return;
		}
		// add node edge
		$this->graphEdge[$src][] = new Edge($w, $src, $dest);
		if ($dest == $src)
		{
			return;
		}
		$this->graphEdge[$dest][] = new Edge($w, $dest, $src);
	}
	public	function printGraph()
	{
		echo("\n Graph Adjacency List ");
		for ($i = 0; $i < $this->vertices; ++$i)
		{
			echo(" \n [".$i.
				"] :");
			// iterate edges of i node
			for ($j = 0; $j < count($this->graphEdge[$i]); ++$j)
			{
				echo("  ".$this->graphEdge[$i][$j]->dest);
			}
		}
	}
	public	function find($subsets, $i)
	{
		if ($subsets[$i]->parent != $i)
		{
			$subsets[$i]->parent = $this->find($subsets, $subsets[$i]->parent);
		}
		return $subsets[$i]->parent;
	}

	function findUnion($subsets, $x, $y)
	{
		$a = $this->find($subsets, $x);
		$b = $this->find($subsets, $y);
		if ($subsets[$a]->rank < $subsets[$b]->rank)
		{
			$subsets[$a]->parent = $b;
		}
		else if ($subsets[$a]->rank > $subsets[$b]->rank)
		{
			$subsets[$b]->parent = $a;
		}
		else
		{
			$subsets[$b]->parent = $a;
			$subsets[$a]->rank++;
		}
	}
	public	function boruvkaMST()
	{
		// Contain weight sum in mst path
		$result = 0;
		$selector = $this->vertices;
		$subsets = array_fill(0, $this->vertices, NULL);
		$cheapest = array_fill(0, $this->vertices, NULL);
		for ($v = 0; $v < $this->vertices; ++$v)
		{
			$subsets[$v] = new State($v, 0);
		}
		while ($selector > 1)
		{
			for ($v = 0; $v < $this->vertices; ++$v)
			{
				$cheapest[$v] = NULL;
			}
			for ($k = 0; $k < $this->vertices; $k++)
			{
				for ($i = 0; $i < count($this->graphEdge[$k]); ++$i)
				{
					$set1 = $this->find($subsets, $this->graphEdge[$k][$i]->src);
					$set2 = $this->find($subsets, $this->graphEdge[$k][$i]->dest);
					if ($set1 != $set2)
					{
						if ($cheapest[$k] == NULL)
						{
							$cheapest[$k] = $this->graphEdge[$k][$i];
						}
						else if ($cheapest[$k]->weight > $this->graphEdge[$k][$i]->weight)
						{
							$cheapest[$k] = $this->graphEdge[$k][$i];
						}
					}
				}
			}
			for ($i = 0; $i < $this->vertices; $i++)
			{
				if ($cheapest[$i] != NULL)
				{
					$set1 = $this->find($subsets, $cheapest[$i]->src);
					$set2 = $this->find($subsets, $cheapest[$i]->dest);
					if ($set1 != $set2)
					{
						// Reduce a edge
						$selector--;
						$this->findUnion($subsets, $set1, $set2);
						// Display the edge connection
						echo("\n Include Edge (".$cheapest[$i]->src.
							" - ".$cheapest[$i]->dest.
							") weight ".$cheapest[$i]->weight);
						// Add weight
						$result += $cheapest[$i]->weight;
					}
				}
			}
		}
		echo("\n Calculated total weight of MST is ".$result.
			"\n");
	}
}

function main()
{
	$g = new Graph(10);
	$g->addEdge(0, 1, 7);
	$g->addEdge(0, 7, 6);
	$g->addEdge(0, 8, 4);
	$g->addEdge(1, 2, 9);
	$g->addEdge(1, 8, 6);
	$g->addEdge(2, 3, 8);
	$g->addEdge(2, 6, 12);
	$g->addEdge(2, 9, 14);
	$g->addEdge(3, 4, 16);
	$g->addEdge(3, 9, 5);
	$g->addEdge(4, 5, 15);
	$g->addEdge(5, 6, 8);
	$g->addEdge(5, 9, 7);
	$g->addEdge(6, 7, 2);
	$g->addEdge(6, 8, 10);
	$g->addEdge(8, 9, 3);
	// Display graph element
	$g->printGraph();
	// Find MST
	$g->boruvkaMST();
}
main();

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
/*
    Node JS Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
class Edge
{
	constructor(weight, src, dest)
	{
		this.weight = weight;
		this.dest = dest;
		this.src = src;
		this.next = null;
	}
}
class State
{
	constructor(parent, rank)
	{
		this.parent = parent;
		this.rank = rank;
	}
}
class Graph
{
	constructor(vertices)
	{
		this.vertices = vertices;
		this.graphEdge = [];
		for (var i = 0; i < this.vertices; ++i)
		{
			this.graphEdge.push([]);
		}
	}
	addEdge(src, dest, w)
	{
		if (dest < 0 || dest >= this.vertices || 
            src < 0 || src >= this.vertices)
		{
			return;
		}
		// add node edge
		this.graphEdge[src].push(new Edge(w, src, dest));
		if (dest == src)
		{
			return;
		}
		this.graphEdge[dest].push(new Edge(w, dest, src));
	}
	printGraph()
	{
		process.stdout.write("\n Graph Adjacency List ");
		for (var i = 0; i < this.vertices; ++i)
		{
			process.stdout.write(" \n [" + i + "] :");
			// iterate edges of i node
			for (var j = 0; j < this.graphEdge[i].length; ++j)
			{
				process.stdout.write("  " + this.graphEdge[i][j].dest);
			}
		}
	}
	find(subsets, i)
	{
		if (subsets[i].parent != i)
		{
			subsets[i].parent = this.find(subsets, subsets[i].parent);
		}
		return subsets[i].parent;
	}
	findUnion(subsets, x, y)
	{
		var a = this.find(subsets, x);
		var b = this.find(subsets, y);
		if (subsets[a].rank < subsets[b].rank)
		{
			subsets[a].parent = b;
		}
		else if (subsets[a].rank > subsets[b].rank)
		{
			subsets[b].parent = a;
		}
		else
		{
			subsets[b].parent = a;
			subsets[a].rank++;
		}
	}
	boruvkaMST()
	{
		// Contain weight sum in mst path
		var result = 0;
		var selector = this.vertices;
		var subsets = Array(this.vertices).fill(null);
		var cheapest = Array(this.vertices).fill(null);
		for (var v = 0; v < this.vertices; ++v)
		{
			subsets[v] = new State(v, 0);
		}
		while (selector > 1)
		{
			for (var v = 0; v < this.vertices; ++v)
			{
				cheapest[v] = null;
			}
			for (var k = 0; k < this.vertices; k++)
			{
				for (var i = 0; i < this.graphEdge[k].length; ++i)
				{
					var set1 = this.find(subsets, 
                                         this.graphEdge[k][i].src);
					var set2 = this.find(subsets, 
                                         this.graphEdge[k][i].dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						if (cheapest[k] == null)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
						else if (cheapest[k].weight >
                                 this.graphEdge[k][i].weight)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
					}
				}
			}
			for (var i = 0; i < this.vertices; i++)
			{
				if (cheapest[i] != null)
				{
					var set1 = this.find(subsets, cheapest[i].src);
					var set2 = this.find(subsets, cheapest[i].dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						// Reduce a edge
						selector--;
						this.findUnion(subsets, set1, set2);
						// Display the edge connection
						process.stdout.write("\n Include Edge (" + 
                                             cheapest[i].src + " - " +
                                             cheapest[i].dest + ") weight " + 
                                             cheapest[i].weight);
						// Add weight
						result += cheapest[i].weight;
					}
				}
			}
		}
		console.log("\n Calculated total weight of MST is " + result);
	}
}

function main()
{
	var g = new Graph(10);
	g.addEdge(0, 1, 7);
	g.addEdge(0, 7, 6);
	g.addEdge(0, 8, 4);
	g.addEdge(1, 2, 9);
	g.addEdge(1, 8, 6);
	g.addEdge(2, 3, 8);
	g.addEdge(2, 6, 12);
	g.addEdge(2, 9, 14);
	g.addEdge(3, 4, 16);
	g.addEdge(3, 9, 5);
	g.addEdge(4, 5, 15);
	g.addEdge(5, 6, 8);
	g.addEdge(5, 9, 7);
	g.addEdge(6, 7, 2);
	g.addEdge(6, 8, 10);
	g.addEdge(8, 9, 3);
	// Display graph element
	g.printGraph();
	// Find MST
	g.boruvkaMST();
}
main();

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
#    Python 3 Program
#    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees

class Edge :
	#  Edge weight or cost  
	def __init__(self, weight, src, dest) :
		self.weight = weight
		self.dest = dest
		self.src = src
		self.next = None
	

class State :
	def __init__(self, parent, rank) :
		self.parent = parent
		self.rank = rank
	

class Graph :
	def __init__(self, vertices) :
		self.vertices = vertices
		self.graphEdge = []
		i = 0
		while (i < self.vertices) :
			self.graphEdge.append([])
			i += 1
		
	
	def addEdge(self, src, dest, w) :
		if (dest < 0 or dest >= self.vertices or src < 0 or src >= self.vertices) :
			return
		
		#  add node edge
		self.graphEdge[src].append(Edge(w, src, dest))
		if (dest == src) :
			return
		
		self.graphEdge[dest].append(Edge(w, dest, src))
	
	def printGraph(self) :
		print("\n Graph Adjacency List ", end = "")
		i = 0
		while (i < self.vertices) :
			print(" \n [", i ,"] :", end = "")
			j = 0
			#  iterate edges of i node
			while (j < len(self.graphEdge[i])) :
				print("  ", self.graphEdge[i][j].dest, end = "")
				j += 1
			
			i += 1
		
	
	def find(self, subsets, i) :
		if (subsets[i].parent != i) :
			subsets[i].parent = self.find(subsets, subsets[i].parent)
		
		return subsets[i].parent
	
	def findUnion(self, subsets, x, y) :
		a = self.find(subsets, x)
		b = self.find(subsets, y)
		if (subsets[a].rank < subsets[b].rank) :
			subsets[a].parent = b
		elif (subsets[a].rank > subsets[b].rank) :
			subsets[b].parent = a
		else :
			subsets[b].parent = a
			subsets[a].rank += 1
		
	
	def boruvkaMST(self) :
		#  Contain weight sum in mst path
		result = 0
		selector = self.vertices
		subsets = [None] * (self.vertices)
		cheapest = [None] * (self.vertices)
		v = 0
		while (v < self.vertices) :
			subsets[v] = State(v, 0)
			v += 1
		
		while (selector > 1) :
			v = 0
			while (v < self.vertices) :
				cheapest[v] = None
				v += 1
			
			k = 0
			while (k < self.vertices) :
				i = 0
				while (i < len(self.graphEdge[k])) :
					set1 = self.find(subsets, self.graphEdge[k][i].src)
					set2 = self.find(subsets, self.graphEdge[k][i].dest)
					if (set1 != set2) :
						if (cheapest[k] == None) :
							cheapest[k] = self.graphEdge[k][i]
						elif (cheapest[k].weight > self.graphEdge[k][i].weight) :
							cheapest[k] = self.graphEdge[k][i]
						
					
					i += 1
				
				k += 1
			
			i = 0
			while (i < self.vertices) :
				if (cheapest[i] != None) :
					set1 = self.find(subsets, cheapest[i].src)
					set2 = self.find(subsets, cheapest[i].dest)
					if (set1 != set2) :
						#  Reduce a edge
						selector -= 1
						self.findUnion(subsets, set1, set2)
						#  Display the edge connection
						print("\n Include Edge (", cheapest[i].src ," - ", cheapest[i].dest ,") weight ", cheapest[i].weight, end = "")
						#  Add weight
						result += cheapest[i].weight
					
				
				i += 1
			
		
		print("\n Calculated total weight of MST is ", result)
	

def main() :
	g = Graph(10)
	g.addEdge(0, 1, 7)
	g.addEdge(0, 7, 6)
	g.addEdge(0, 8, 4)
	g.addEdge(1, 2, 9)
	g.addEdge(1, 8, 6)
	g.addEdge(2, 3, 8)
	g.addEdge(2, 6, 12)
	g.addEdge(2, 9, 14)
	g.addEdge(3, 4, 16)
	g.addEdge(3, 9, 5)
	g.addEdge(4, 5, 15)
	g.addEdge(5, 6, 8)
	g.addEdge(5, 9, 7)
	g.addEdge(6, 7, 2)
	g.addEdge(6, 8, 10)
	g.addEdge(8, 9, 3)
	#  Display graph element
	g.printGraph()
	#  Find MST
	g.boruvkaMST()

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [ 0 ] :   1   7   8
 [ 1 ] :   0   2   8
 [ 2 ] :   1   3   6   9
 [ 3 ] :   2   4   9
 [ 4 ] :   3   5
 [ 5 ] :   4   6   9
 [ 6 ] :   2   5   7   8
 [ 7 ] :   0   6
 [ 8 ] :   0   1   6   9
 [ 9 ] :   2   3   5   8
 Include Edge ( 0  -  8 ) weight  4
 Include Edge ( 1  -  8 ) weight  6
 Include Edge ( 2  -  3 ) weight  8
 Include Edge ( 3  -  9 ) weight  5
 Include Edge ( 4  -  5 ) weight  15
 Include Edge ( 5  -  9 ) weight  7
 Include Edge ( 6  -  7 ) weight  2
 Include Edge ( 8  -  9 ) weight  3
 Include Edge ( 0  -  7 ) weight  6
 Calculated total weight of MST is  56
#    Ruby Program
#    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
class Edge 
	# Define the accessor and reader of class Edge
	attr_reader :weight, :dest, :src, :next
	attr_accessor :weight, :dest, :src, :next
	#  Edge weight or cost  
	def initialize(weight, src, dest) 
		self.weight = weight
		self.dest = dest
		self.src = src
		self.next = nil
	end

end

class State 
	# Define the accessor and reader of class State
	attr_reader :parent, :rank
	attr_accessor :parent, :rank
	def initialize(parent, rank) 
		self.parent = parent
		self.rank = rank
	end

end

class Graph 
	# Define the accessor and reader of class Graph
	attr_reader :vertices, :graphEdge
	attr_accessor :vertices, :graphEdge
	def initialize(vertices) 
		self.vertices = vertices
		self.graphEdge = []
		i = 0
		while (i < self.vertices) 
			self.graphEdge.push([])
			i += 1
		end

	end

	def addEdge(src, dest, w) 
		if (dest < 0 || dest >= self.vertices || 
            src < 0 || src >= self.vertices) 
			return
		end

		#  add node edge
		self.graphEdge[src].push(Edge.new(w, src, dest))
		if (dest == src) 
			return
		end

		self.graphEdge[dest].push(Edge.new(w, dest, src))
	end

	def printGraph() 
		print("\n Graph Adjacency List ")
		i = 0
		while (i < self.vertices) 
			print(" \n [", i ,"] :")
			j = 0
			#  iterate edges of i node
			while (j < self.graphEdge[i].length) 
				print("  ", self.graphEdge[i][j].dest)
				j += 1
			end

			i += 1
		end

	end

	def find(subsets, i) 
		if (subsets[i].parent != i) 
			subsets[i].parent = self.find(subsets, subsets[i].parent)
		end

		return subsets[i].parent
	end

	def findUnion(subsets, x, y) 
		a = self.find(subsets, x)
		b = self.find(subsets, y)
		if (subsets[a].rank < subsets[b].rank) 
			subsets[a].parent = b
		elsif (subsets[a].rank > subsets[b].rank) 
			subsets[b].parent = a
		else
 
			subsets[b].parent = a
			subsets[a].rank += 1
		end

	end

	def boruvkaMST() 
		#  Contain weight sum in mst path
		result = 0
		selector = self.vertices
		subsets = Array.new(self.vertices) {nil}
		cheapest = Array.new(self.vertices) {nil}
		v = 0
		while (v < self.vertices) 
			subsets[v] = State.new(v, 0)
			v += 1
		end

		while (selector > 1) 
			v = 0
			while (v < self.vertices) 
				cheapest[v] = nil
				v += 1
			end

			k = 0
			while (k < self.vertices) 
				i = 0
				while (i < self.graphEdge[k].length) 
					set1 = self.find(subsets, self.graphEdge[k][i].src)
					set2 = self.find(subsets, self.graphEdge[k][i].dest)
					if (set1 != set2) 
						if (cheapest[k] == nil) 
							cheapest[k] = self.graphEdge[k][i]
						elsif (cheapest[k].weight > 
                               self.graphEdge[k][i].weight) 
							cheapest[k] = self.graphEdge[k][i]
						end

					end

					i += 1
				end

				k += 1
			end

			i = 0
			while (i < self.vertices) 
				if (cheapest[i] != nil) 
					set1 = self.find(subsets, cheapest[i].src)
					set2 = self.find(subsets, cheapest[i].dest)
					if (set1 != set2) 
						#  Reduce a edge
						selector -= 1
						self.findUnion(subsets, set1, set2)
						#  Display the edge connection
						print("\n Include Edge (", 
                              cheapest[i].src ," - ", 
                              cheapest[i].dest ,") weight ",
                              cheapest[i].weight)
						#  Add weight
						result += cheapest[i].weight
					end

				end

				i += 1
			end

		end

		print("\n Calculated total weight of MST is ", result, "\n")
	end

end

def main() 
	g = Graph.new(10)
	g.addEdge(0, 1, 7)
	g.addEdge(0, 7, 6)
	g.addEdge(0, 8, 4)
	g.addEdge(1, 2, 9)
	g.addEdge(1, 8, 6)
	g.addEdge(2, 3, 8)
	g.addEdge(2, 6, 12)
	g.addEdge(2, 9, 14)
	g.addEdge(3, 4, 16)
	g.addEdge(3, 9, 5)
	g.addEdge(4, 5, 15)
	g.addEdge(5, 6, 8)
	g.addEdge(5, 9, 7)
	g.addEdge(6, 7, 2)
	g.addEdge(6, 8, 10)
	g.addEdge(8, 9, 3)
	#  Display graph element
	g.printGraph()
	#  Find MST
	g.boruvkaMST()
end

main()

Output

 Graph Adjacency List  
 [0] :  1  7  8 
 [1] :  0  2  8 
 [2] :  1  3  6  9 
 [3] :  2  4  9 
 [4] :  3  5 
 [5] :  4  6  9 
 [6] :  2  5  7  8 
 [7] :  0  6 
 [8] :  0  1  6  9 
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
import scala.collection.mutable._;
/*
    Scala Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
class Edge(
	// Edge weight or cost  
	var weight: Int,
		var dest: Int,
			var src: Int,
				var next: Edge)
{
	def this(weight: Int, src: Int, dest: Int)
	{
		this(weight, dest, src, null)
	}
}
class State(var parent: Int,var rank: Int);
class Graph(var vertices: Int,
	var graphEdge: ArrayBuffer[ArrayBuffer[Edge]])
{
	def this(vertices: Int)
	{
      	this(vertices, new ArrayBuffer[ArrayBuffer[Edge]](vertices))
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < this.vertices)
		{
			this.graphEdge += new ArrayBuffer[Edge]();
			i += 1;
		}
		
	}
	def addEdge(src: Int, dest: Int, w: Int): Unit = {
		if (dest < 0 || dest >= this.vertices || 
             src < 0 || src >= this.vertices)
		{
			return;
		}
		// add node edge
		graphEdge(src) += new Edge(w, src, dest);
		if (dest == src)
		{
			return;
		}
		graphEdge(dest) += new Edge(w, dest, src);
	}
	def printGraph(): Unit = {
		print("\n Graph Adjacency List ");
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < this.vertices)
		{
			print(" \n [" + i + "] :");
			var j: Int = 0;
			// iterate edges of i node
			while (j < this.graphEdge(i).size)
			{
				print("  " + this.graphEdge(i)(j).dest);
				j += 1;
			}
			i += 1;
		}
	}
	def find(subsets: Array[State], i: Int): Int = {
		if (subsets(i).parent != i)
		{
			subsets(i).parent = find(subsets, subsets(i).parent);
		}
		return subsets(i).parent;
	}
	def findUnion(subsets: Array[State], x: Int, y: Int): Unit = {
		var a: Int = find(subsets, x);
		var b: Int = find(subsets, y);
		if (subsets(a).rank < subsets(b).rank)
		{
			subsets(a).parent = b;
		}
		else if (subsets(a).rank > subsets(b).rank)
		{
			subsets(b).parent = a;
		}
		else
		{
			subsets(b).parent = a;
			subsets(a).rank += 1;
		}
	}
	def boruvkaMST(): Unit = {
		// Contain weight sum in mst path
		var result: Int = 0;
		var selector: Int = this.vertices;
		var subsets: Array[State] = Array.fill[State](this.vertices)(null);
		var cheapest: Array[Edge] = Array.fill[Edge](this.vertices)(null);
		var v: Int = 0;
		while (v < this.vertices)
		{
			subsets(v) = new State(v, 0);
			v += 1;
		}
		while (selector > 1)
		{
			var v: Int = 0;
			while (v < this.vertices)
			{
				cheapest(v) = null;
				v += 1;
			}
			var k: Int = 0;
			while (k < this.vertices)
			{
				var i: Int = 0;
				while (i < this.graphEdge(k).size)
				{
					var set1: Int = find(subsets, this.graphEdge(k)(i).src);
					var set2: Int = find(subsets, this.graphEdge(k)(i).dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						if (cheapest(k) == null)
						{
							cheapest(k) = this.graphEdge(k)(i);
						}
						else if (cheapest(k).weight > 
                                 this.graphEdge(k)(i).weight)
						{
							cheapest(k) = this.graphEdge(k)(i);
						}
					}
					i += 1;
				}
				k += 1;
			}
			var i: Int = 0;
			while (i < this.vertices)
			{
				if (cheapest(i) != null)
				{
					var set1: Int = find(subsets, cheapest(i).src);
					var set2: Int = find(subsets, cheapest(i).dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						// Reduce a edge
						selector -= 1;
						findUnion(subsets, set1, set2);
						// Display the edge connection
						print("\n Include Edge (" + 
                              cheapest(i).src + " - " + 
                              cheapest(i).dest + ") weight " +
                              cheapest(i).weight);
						// Add weight
						result += cheapest(i).weight;
					}
				}
				i += 1;
			}
		}
		println("\n Calculated total weight of MST is " + result);
	}
}
object Main
{
	def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
		var g: Graph = new Graph(10);
		g.addEdge(0, 1, 7);
		g.addEdge(0, 7, 6);
		g.addEdge(0, 8, 4);
		g.addEdge(1, 2, 9);
		g.addEdge(1, 8, 6);
		g.addEdge(2, 3, 8);
		g.addEdge(2, 6, 12);
		g.addEdge(2, 9, 14);
		g.addEdge(3, 4, 16);
		g.addEdge(3, 9, 5);
		g.addEdge(4, 5, 15);
		g.addEdge(5, 6, 8);
		g.addEdge(5, 9, 7);
		g.addEdge(6, 7, 2);
		g.addEdge(6, 8, 10);
		g.addEdge(8, 9, 3);
		// Display graph element
		g.printGraph();
		// Find MST
		g.boruvkaMST();
	}
}

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
import Foundation;
/*
    Swift 4 Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
class Edge
{
	// Edge weight or cost  
	var weight: Int;
	var dest: Int;
	var src: Int;
	var next: Edge? ;
	init(_ weight: Int, _ src: Int, _ dest: Int)
	{
		self.weight = weight;
		self.dest = dest;
		self.src = src;
		self.next = nil;
	}
}
class State
{
	var parent: Int;
	var rank: Int;
	init(_ parent: Int, _ rank: Int)
	{
		self.parent = parent;
		self.rank = rank;
	}
}
class Graph
{
	var vertices: Int;
	var graphEdge: [[Edge?]];
	init(_ vertices: Int)
	{
		self.vertices = vertices;
		self.graphEdge = [[Edge?]]();
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < self.vertices)
		{
			self.graphEdge.append([Edge?]());
			i += 1;
		}
	}
	func addEdge(_ src: Int, _ dest: Int, _ w: Int)
	{
		if (dest < 0 || dest >= self.vertices || 
			src < 0 || src >= self.vertices)
		{
			return;
		}
		// add node edge
		self.graphEdge[src].append(Edge(w, src, dest));
		if (dest == src)
		{
			return;
		}
		self.graphEdge[dest].append(Edge(w, dest, src));
	}
	func printGraph()
	{
		print("\n Graph Adjacency List ", terminator: "");
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < self.vertices)
		{
			print(" \n [", i ,"] :", terminator: "");
			var j: Int = 0;
			// iterate edges of i node
			while (j < self.graphEdge[i].count)
			{
				print("  ", self.graphEdge[i][j]!.dest, 
					terminator: "");
				j += 1;
			}
			i += 1;
		}
	}
	func find(_ subsets: inout[State?], _ i: Int) -> Int
	{
		if (subsets[i]!.parent  != i)
		{
			subsets[i]!.parent = self.find(&subsets, 
				subsets[i]!.parent);
		}
		return subsets[i]!.parent;
	}
	func findUnion(_ subsets: inout[State?], 
		_ x: Int, _ y: Int)
	{
		let a: Int = self.find(&subsets, x);
		let b: Int = self.find(&subsets, y);
		if (subsets[a]!.rank < subsets[b]!.rank)
		{
			subsets[a]!.parent = b;
		}
		else if (subsets[a]!.rank > subsets[b]!.rank)
		{
			subsets[b]!.parent = a;
		}
		else
		{
			subsets[b]!.parent = a;
			subsets[a]!.rank += 1;
		}
	}
	func boruvkaMST()
	{
		// Contain weight sum in mst path
		var result: Int = 0;
		var selector: Int = self.vertices;
		var subsets: [State?] = Array(repeating: nil, 
			count: self.vertices);
		var cheapest: [Edge?] = Array(repeating: nil, 
			count: self.vertices);
		var v: Int = 0;
		while (v < self.vertices)
		{
			subsets[v] = State(v, 0);
			v += 1;
		}
		while (selector > 1)
		{
			var v: Int = 0;
			while (v < self.vertices)
			{
				cheapest[v] = nil;
				v += 1;
			}
			var k: Int = 0;
			while (k < self.vertices)
			{
				var i: Int = 0;
				while (i < self.graphEdge[k].count)
				{
					let set1: Int = self.find(&subsets, 
						self.graphEdge[k][i]!.src);
					let set2: Int = self.find(&subsets, 
						self.graphEdge[k][i]!.dest);
					if (set1  != set2)
					{
						if (cheapest[k] == nil)
						{
							cheapest[k] = self.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
						else if (cheapest[k]!.weight > 
							self.graphEdge[k][i]!.weight)
						{
							cheapest[k] = self.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
					}
					i += 1;
				}
				k += 1;
			}
			var i: Int = 0;
			while (i < self.vertices)
			{
				if (cheapest[i]  != nil)
				{
					let set1: Int = self.find(&subsets, 
						cheapest[i]!.src);
					let set2: Int = self.find(&subsets, 
						cheapest[i]!.dest);
					if (set1  != set2)
					{
						// Reduce a edge
						selector -= 1;
						self.findUnion(&subsets, set1, set2);
						// Display the edge connection
						print("\n Include Edge (", 
							cheapest[i]!.src ," - ", 
							cheapest[i]!.dest ,") weight ", 
							cheapest[i]!.weight, terminator: "");
						// Add weight
						result += cheapest[i]!.weight;
					}
				}
				i += 1;
			}
		}
		print("\n Calculated total weight of MST is ", 
			result);
	}
}
func main()
{
	let g: Graph = Graph(10);
	g.addEdge(0, 1, 7);
	g.addEdge(0, 7, 6);
	g.addEdge(0, 8, 4);
	g.addEdge(1, 2, 9);
	g.addEdge(1, 8, 6);
	g.addEdge(2, 3, 8);
	g.addEdge(2, 6, 12);
	g.addEdge(2, 9, 14);
	g.addEdge(3, 4, 16);
	g.addEdge(3, 9, 5);
	g.addEdge(4, 5, 15);
	g.addEdge(5, 6, 8);
	g.addEdge(5, 9, 7);
	g.addEdge(6, 7, 2);
	g.addEdge(6, 8, 10);
	g.addEdge(8, 9, 3);
	// Display graph element
	g.printGraph();
	// Find MST
	g.boruvkaMST();
}
main();

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [ 0 ] :   1   7   8
 [ 1 ] :   0   2   8
 [ 2 ] :   1   3   6   9
 [ 3 ] :   2   4   9
 [ 4 ] :   3   5
 [ 5 ] :   4   6   9
 [ 6 ] :   2   5   7   8
 [ 7 ] :   0   6
 [ 8 ] :   0   1   6   9
 [ 9 ] :   2   3   5   8
 Include Edge ( 0  -  8 ) weight  4
 Include Edge ( 1  -  8 ) weight  6
 Include Edge ( 2  -  3 ) weight  8
 Include Edge ( 3  -  9 ) weight  5
 Include Edge ( 4  -  5 ) weight  15
 Include Edge ( 5  -  9 ) weight  7
 Include Edge ( 6  -  7 ) weight  2
 Include Edge ( 8  -  9 ) weight  3
 Include Edge ( 0  -  7 ) weight  6
 Calculated total weight of MST is  56
/*
    Kotlin Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
class Edge
{
	// Edge weight or cost  
	var weight: Int;
	var dest: Int;
	var src: Int;
	var next: Edge ? ;
	constructor(weight: Int, src: Int, dest: Int)
	{
		this.weight = weight;
		this.dest = dest;
		this.src = src;
		this.next = null;
	}
}
class State
{
	var parent: Int;
	var rank: Int;
	constructor(parent: Int, rank: Int)
	{
		this.parent = parent;
		this.rank = rank;
	}
}
class Graph
{
	var vertices: Int;
	var graphEdge: MutableList < MutableList < Edge >> ;
	constructor(vertices: Int)
	{
		this.vertices = vertices;
		this.graphEdge = mutableListOf<MutableList<Edge>>();
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < this.vertices)
		{
			this.graphEdge.add(mutableListOf < Edge > ());
			i += 1;
		}
	}
	fun addEdge(src: Int, dest: Int, w: Int): Unit
	{
		if (dest < 0 || dest >= this.vertices || 
            src < 0 || src >= this.vertices)
		{
			return;
		}
		// add node edge
		this.graphEdge[src].add(Edge(w, src, dest));
		if (dest == src)
		{
			return;
		}
		this.graphEdge[dest].add(Edge(w, dest, src));
	}
	fun printGraph(): Unit
	{
		print("\n Graph Adjacency List ");
		var i: Int = 0;
		while (i < this.vertices)
		{
			print(" \n [" + i + "] :");
			var j: Int = 0;
			// iterate edges of i node
			while (j < this.graphEdge[i].size)
			{
				print("  " + this.graphEdge[i][j].dest);
				j += 1;
			}
			i += 1;
		}
	}
	fun find(subsets: Array < State ? > , i : Int): Int
	{
		if (subsets[i]!!.parent != i)
		{
			subsets[i]!!.parent = this.find(subsets, 
                                            subsets[i]!!.parent);
		}
		return subsets[i]!!.parent;
	}
	fun findUnion(subsets: Array < State ? > , x : Int, y: Int): Unit
	{
		val a: Int = this.find(subsets, x);
		val b: Int = this.find(subsets, y);
		if (subsets[a]!!.rank < subsets[b]!!.rank)
		{
			subsets[a]!!.parent = b;
		}
		else if (subsets[a]!!.rank > subsets[b]!!.rank)
		{
			subsets[b]!!.parent = a;
		}
		else
		{
			subsets[b]!!.parent = a;
			subsets[a]!!.rank += 1;
		}
	}
	fun boruvkaMST(): Unit
	{
		// Contain weight sum in mst path
		var result: Int = 0;
		var selector: Int = this.vertices;
		val subsets: Array < State ? > = Array(this.vertices)
		{
			null
		};
		val cheapest: Array < Edge ? > = Array(this.vertices)
		{
			null
		};
		var v: Int = 0;
		while (v < this.vertices)
		{
			subsets[v] = State(v, 0);
			v += 1;
		}
		while (selector > 1)
		{
			v = 0;
			while (v < this.vertices)
			{
				cheapest[v] = null;
				v += 1;
			}
			var k: Int = 0;
			while (k < this.vertices)
			{
				var i: Int = 0;
				while (i < this.graphEdge[k].size)
				{
					val set1: Int = this.find(subsets, 
                                              this.graphEdge[k][i].src);
					val set2: Int = this.find(subsets, 
                                              this.graphEdge[k][i].dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						if (cheapest[k] == null)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
						else if (cheapest[k]!!.weight > 
                                 this.graphEdge[k][i].weight)
						{
							cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i];
						}
					}
					i += 1;
				}
				k += 1;
			}
			var i: Int = 0;
			while (i < this.vertices)
			{
				if (cheapest[i] != null)
				{
					val set1: Int = this.find(subsets, 
                                              cheapest[i]!!.src);
					val set2: Int = this.find(subsets, 
                                              cheapest[i]!!.dest);
					if (set1 != set2)
					{
						// Reduce a edge
						selector -= 1;
						this.findUnion(subsets, set1, set2);
						// Display the edge connection
						print("\n Include Edge (" + 
                              cheapest[i]!!.src + " - " + 
                              cheapest[i]!!.dest + ") weight " +
                          cheapest[i]!!.weight);
						// Add weight
						result += cheapest[i]!!.weight;
					}
				}
				i += 1;
			}
		}
		println("\n Calculated total weight of MST is " + result);
	}
}
fun main(args: Array < String > ): Unit
{
	val g: Graph = Graph(10);
	g.addEdge(0, 1, 7);
	g.addEdge(0, 7, 6);
	g.addEdge(0, 8, 4);
	g.addEdge(1, 2, 9);
	g.addEdge(1, 8, 6);
	g.addEdge(2, 3, 8);
	g.addEdge(2, 6, 12);
	g.addEdge(2, 9, 14);
	g.addEdge(3, 4, 16);
	g.addEdge(3, 9, 5);
	g.addEdge(4, 5, 15);
	g.addEdge(5, 6, 8);
	g.addEdge(5, 9, 7);
	g.addEdge(6, 7, 2);
	g.addEdge(6, 8, 10);
	g.addEdge(8, 9, 3);
	// Display graph element
	g.printGraph();
	// Find MST
	g.boruvkaMST();
}

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56
package main
import "fmt"
/*
    Go Program
    Boruvka's algorithm for minimum spanning trees
*/
type Edge struct {
	// Edge weight or cost  
	weight int
	dest int
	src int
	next * Edge
}
func getEdge(weight int, src int, dest int) * Edge {
	var me *Edge = &Edge {}
	me.weight = weight
	me.dest = dest
	me.src = src
	me.next = nil
	return me
}
type State struct {
	parent int
	rank int
}
func getState(parent int, rank int) * State {
	var me *State = &State {}
	me.parent = parent
	me.rank = rank
	return me
}
type Graph struct {
	vertices int
	graphEdge [][]*Edge
}
func getGraph(vertices int) * Graph {
	var me *Graph = &Graph {}
	me.vertices = vertices
	me.graphEdge = make([][]*Edge,vertices)
	for i := 0 ; i < me.vertices ; i++ {
		me.graphEdge[i] = make([]*Edge,0 )
	}
	return me
}
func(this Graph) addEdge(src, dest, w int) {
	if dest < 0 || dest >= this.vertices || 
	src < 0 || src >= this.vertices {
		return
	}
	// add node edge
	this.graphEdge[src] = append(this.graphEdge[src], 
		getEdge(w, src, dest))
	if dest == src {
		return
	}
	this.graphEdge[dest] = append(this.graphEdge[dest], 
		getEdge(w, dest, src))
}
func(this Graph) printGraph() {
	fmt.Print("\n Graph Adjacency List ")
	for i := 0 ; i < this.vertices ; i++ {
		fmt.Print(" \n [", i, "] :")
		// iterate edges of i node
		for j := 0 ; j < len(this.graphEdge[i]) ; j++ {
			fmt.Print("  ", this.graphEdge[i][j].dest)
		}
	}
}
func(this Graph) find(subsets[] *State, i int) int {
	if subsets[i].parent != i {
		subsets[i].parent = this.find(subsets, 
			subsets[i].parent)
	}
	return subsets[i].parent
}
func(this Graph) findUnion(subsets[] *State, x int, y int) {
	var a int = this.find(subsets, x)
	var b int = this.find(subsets, y)
	if subsets[a].rank < subsets[b].rank {
		subsets[a].parent = b
	} else if subsets[a].rank > subsets[b].rank {
		subsets[b].parent = a
	} else {
		subsets[b].parent = a
		subsets[a].rank++
	}
}
func(this Graph) boruvkaMST() {
	// Contain weight sum in mst path
	var result int = 0
	var selector int = this.vertices
	var subsets = make([] *State, this.vertices)
	var cheapest = make([] *Edge, this.vertices)
	for v := 0 ; v < this.vertices ; v++ {
		subsets[v] = getState(v, 0)
	}
	for (selector > 1) {
		for v := 0 ; v < this.vertices ; v++ {
			cheapest[v] = nil
		}
		for k := 0 ; k < this.vertices ; k++ {
			for i := 0 ; i < len(this.graphEdge[k]) ; i++ {
				var set1 int = this.find(subsets, 
					this.graphEdge[k][i].src)
				var set2 int = this.find(subsets, 
					this.graphEdge[k][i].dest)
				if set1 != set2 {
					if cheapest[k] == nil {
						cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i]
					} else if cheapest[k].weight > 
					this.graphEdge[k][i].weight {
						cheapest[k] = this.graphEdge[k][i]
					}
				}
			}
		}
		for i := 0 ; i < this.vertices ; i++ {
			if cheapest[i] != nil {
				var set1 int = this.find(subsets, 
					cheapest[i].src)
				var set2 int = this.find(subsets, 
					cheapest[i].dest)
				if set1 != set2 {
					// Reduce a edge
					selector--
					this.findUnion(subsets, set1, set2)
					// Display the edge connection
					fmt.Print("\n Include Edge (", 
						cheapest[i].src, " - ", cheapest[i].dest, ") weight ", cheapest[i].weight)
					// Add weight
					result += cheapest[i].weight
				}
			}
		}
	}
	fmt.Println("\n Calculated total weight of MST is ", 
		result)
}
func main() {
	var g * Graph = getGraph(10)
	g.addEdge(0, 1, 7)
	g.addEdge(0, 7, 6)
	g.addEdge(0, 8, 4)
	g.addEdge(1, 2, 9)
	g.addEdge(1, 8, 6)
	g.addEdge(2, 3, 8)
	g.addEdge(2, 6, 12)
	g.addEdge(2, 9, 14)
	g.addEdge(3, 4, 16)
	g.addEdge(3, 9, 5)
	g.addEdge(4, 5, 15)
	g.addEdge(5, 6, 8)
	g.addEdge(5, 9, 7)
	g.addEdge(6, 7, 2)
	g.addEdge(6, 8, 10)
	g.addEdge(8, 9, 3)
	// Display graph element
	g.printGraph()
	// Find MST
	g.boruvkaMST()
}

Output

 Graph Adjacency List
 [0] :  1  7  8
 [1] :  0  2  8
 [2] :  1  3  6  9
 [3] :  2  4  9
 [4] :  3  5
 [5] :  4  6  9
 [6] :  2  5  7  8
 [7] :  0  6
 [8] :  0  1  6  9
 [9] :  2  3  5  8
 Include Edge (0 - 8) weight 4
 Include Edge (1 - 8) weight 6
 Include Edge (2 - 3) weight 8
 Include Edge (3 - 9) weight 5
 Include Edge (4 - 5) weight 15
 Include Edge (5 - 9) weight 7
 Include Edge (6 - 7) weight 2
 Include Edge (8 - 9) weight 3
 Include Edge (0 - 7) weight 6
 Calculated total weight of MST is 56


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